Windows Enterprise Desktop


October 14, 2019  2:35 PM

RDP Cannot Do Everything

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
RDP, Remote Desktop Connection, Windows 10

Interacting with devices (and drivers) via RDP session uses redirection so  what shows on one PC appears on another’s display. A quick look at the Display control in Settings shows what I mean:

RDP Cannot Do Everything.display

Notice the text in red that reads “The display settings can’t be changed from a remote session.”

In a similar vein, the Output Device under Sound → Output is labeled “Remote Audio” (and no other output options appear in that pulldown list). In general when using RDP, you have to understand that certain resources that are normally purely local — display, keyboard, mouse, audio, and so forth — get mapped from the remote host PC (the one to which another PC connects remotely) to the RDP client (the PC through which the remote connection is handled). This means that managing those resources really means working on the client side of the connection. Thus, there are things you can’t do remotely that you can do easily and directly when working at the keyboard of the remote host PC.

But Wait! There’s more…

In Devices and Printers for the Remote host on the RDP client, certain devices double up in that view. Notice, for example, the doubled and redirected entries here for Fax, Print to PDF, XPS document writer, and so forth. The remote connection “sees”  RDP client local and RDP host remote devices and shows them all.

RDP Cannot Do Everything.printers

Because there’s a local copy on the RDP client as well as the Remote Host printer entries double up when remoting into another PC inside Devices & Printers. (Notice the word “redirected” appears.)
[Click image for full-sized view.]

In general, if you want to work with devices or drivers in an RDP session proceed with care. Some of this kind of thing either won’t work at all, or won’t run to completion remotely. If so, you must switch to local, direct access. Once you do that, such things  usually work without issues or problems.

Annoyingly, some applications or processes won’t run, or run to completion in an RDP session

Alas, the same thing is true for some applications. Older versions of the Lenovo System Update utility, for example (prior to version 5.1), would launch in a remote session, but the application window would never fully open. Thus, it didn’t work in a remote session. As soon as the affected PC is accessed locally, however, the utility does its thing quite happily. I’ve often longed for a master list of applications “Apps that don’t work with RDP” but have never found anything like that. Such knowledge comes through trial and error. Once such an error is identified, one learns to avoid using the balky or uncooperative application in RDP thereafter.

October 11, 2019  12:34 PM

No Windows 10 Sandbox Activation

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
built-in security, Sandboxing, Windows 10

I’ve been fooling around with the built-in Windows 10 Sandbox lately. It is indeed a useful tool for trying out unknown or potentially risky software, trial configurations, and so forth. Just for grins, however, I tried to activate the Windows 10 Enterprise license in my Sandbox. And that’s how I learned there’s no Windows 10 Sandbox activation. I’m not 100% sure it’s by design, but I think it must be. Using my Visual Studio subscription MAK (Multiple Activation Key) for Enterprise in Sandbox, here’s what I see when I try to activate the OS running inside it.

No Windows 10 Sandbox Activation.error

Despite entering a known, good, working Windows 10 Enterprise key the error avers that it is not “a valid digital license or product key.” What gives?
[Click image for full-sized view. Key string is blanked out for legal/ethical reasons.]

Why Is There No Windows 10 Sandbox Activation?

There are two different ways to answer that question. Each gets its own section in the text that follows.

Answer 1: Sandbox Activation Makes No Sense

First, there’s the notion that Sandbox activation doesn’t make sense. The environment is evanescent. The whole thing evaporates as soon as the sandbox is closed. Thus, it’s reasonable to argue that it doesn’t make sense to permit activation to proceed on what is by design a throwaway, one-time use operating system instantiation. I turned to a post at the Microsoft Tech Community from Hari Pulapaka, MS Principal Group Program Manager for Windows Kernel. Simply entitled “Windows Sandbox,” it’s got some great information to share. Here’s a quote that spells out key Sandbox characteristics:

+ Part of Windows – everything required for this feature ships with Windows 10 Pro and Enterprise. No need to download a VHD!
+ Pristine – every time Windows Sandbox runs, it’s as clean as a brand-new installation of Windows
+ Disposable – nothing persists on the device; everything is discarded after you close the application
+ Secure – uses hardware-based virtualization for kernel isolation, which relies on the Microsoft’s hypervisor to run a separate kernel which isolates Windows Sandbox from the host
+ Efficient – uses integrated kernel scheduler, smart memory management, and virtual GPU

Answer 2: The Sandbox Doesn’t Support Activation Capability

The second argument about activation failure is more technical. It comes from informed speculation by TenForums user Superfly. He has good cause to know what he’s speculating about. For one thing, he’s the author of the excellent and free Windows key and license discovery/forensics tool called ShowKeyPlus. For another, he’s a resident expert — if not THE resident expert — at TenForums on the subjects of Windows 10 licenses, keys, and activation. When I asked him for his thoughts on this topic, he opined that “Sandbox does not expose the services required for activation,” going on to speculate that “I think it’s by design.” He says he may investigate further to see which, if any, licensing files and services are present in the Sandbox runtime environment. If that produces any further info, I’ll update this blog post.

But for now, it seems pretty settled that MS doesn’t allow activation of the Windows 10 Sandbox because it doesn’t make sense to activate an image that is temporary and does not persist.

Note: Added 15 Minutes After Initial Posting

Indeed, it seems Sandbox is designed as “frozen OS snapshot” all the way ’round. I just tried to run Windows Update on the Sandbox and got error code 0x80070422. Further research indicates that one must check to see if WUserv (the Windows Update service is running and available). And indeed a quick jump into  Services.msc confirms that the Windows Update service is “disabled.” I’d say that provides at least an indication, if not outright proof, that updates and activation don’t work in Sandbox because it wasn’t designed to accommodate such things. ‘Nuff said.

 


October 9, 2019  11:41 AM

Learning Thunderbolt Technology & Connections

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
Docking station, Thunderbolt, USB-C, Windows 10

In my previous blog post, I explained my recent gyrations with Thunderbolt drivers and connections on my 8th-Generation i7 Lenovo laptops. I stated a need for actual Thunderbolt hardware to work with and use this stuff. Thanks to a near-miraculous delivery from Belkin Monday evening, I am now learning Thunderbolt technology & connections. I got an email from Belkin the week after returning from SpiceWorld 2019. Did I want one of their new Thunderbolt 3 hubs announced at that show? I replied “Yes!” and didn’t think much more about it. Thus, imagine my surprise when my wife asked Monday night “What’s in this package from Belkin?” Turns out it was a Thunderbolt™ 3 Mini Dock (Model P-F4U098). This miniature hub supports two HDMI ports, plus 1 each USB 3.0 and 2.0, and GbE (RJ-45) ports as well.

Learning Thunderbolt Technology & Connections.device

Synchronicity: not much sooner wished for, than delivered. Here’s some real Thunderbolt hardware!
[Click image for full-sized view; Source: Belkin product page.]

Hardware Is Required for Learning Thunderbolt Technology & Connections

Now that I’ve got the Mini Dock, I’m actually able to use my Thunderbolt channel for data and device communications. It’s puzzling to me, however, that Belkin doesn’t include a USB-C/Thunderbolt pass-through connection on the device. Given that one of Thunderbolt’s major selling points is its ability to handle up to 40 Gbps per channel (20 in each direction, full-duplex), I’m stunned that HDMI is the only high-speed link on this device and that its only USB ports are 2.0 and 3.0 (not even 3.1). Be that as it may, I’m now learning a bit about the ins and outs of Thunderbolt (pun intended). Here’s what Thunderbolt Software (available through the Thunderbolt symbol in the notification tray on the Taskbar) tells me about itself:

Learning Thunderbolt Technology & Connections.tbsw-about

After my recent driver install shenanigans, it’s nice to see that everything is current and correct.

I can also see my lone Thunderbolt device — the Mini Hub, of course — in the Attached Thunderbolt Devices widget as well (all Thunderbolt function are available with a right-click to its notification tray item). Here’s what that looks like:

I can see the hub, but the Thunderbolt software stays mum on what’s attached to it. Weird!

I figured the tool would show me device chains attached to the hub. Wrong! Nirsoft USBDeview showed me the goods when I plugged in a USB 3.0 flash drive to the hub’s USB 3.0 port. I was also surprised to understand that one must reboot Windows for a device plugged into the Thunderbolt hub to show up in Explorer (and be otherwise accessible to Windows). It’s not exactly the same as USB, where one can plug in or unplug devices and see their status change in real time. Thunderbolt is fast and, as the hub shows, can aggregate lots of services (video, networking, and USB storage) onto a single channel.

Where the Thunder Bolts from Here

I’m still getting the hang of this stuff, though. The FAQ from the Thunderbolt Technology Association (ThunderboltTechnology.net) has so far proven pretty illuminating. Given Intel’s emphasis on DisplayPort video therein, I’m thus a little puzzled about why Belkin elected to include 4K 60Hz HDMI ports instead. As I mess around with this Mini Dock, I immediately get the appeal of Belkin’s higher-end, more expensive full-size docks: they include up to 2 USB-C Thunderbolt passthroughs, GbE,  DisplayPort, and a headphone jack, as well as external power (and thus also, charging support for laptops). Gosh! I’ve got a whole new product space to learn. This should be fun . . .

 


October 7, 2019  12:41 PM

Chasing Thunderbolt Drivers Down

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
Device Manager, Thunderbolt, Windows 10

A famous quote from Joseph Heller’s Catch-22 reads “How can he see if he’s got flies in his eyes if he’s got flies in his eyes?” I was reminded of that snippet while chasing my tail this weekend. I wondered why I saw no Thunderbolt device in Device Manager on my Lenovo Thinkpad X380 Yoga laptops. Only gradually did I recall that because I have no Thunderbold devices, nothing SHOULD show up anyway. Only after spending some time chasing Thunderbolt drivers down, I realized that “Show hidden devices” might help. Here’s what that showed me:

Chasing Thunderbolt/USB-C Drivers Down.show-hidden

Took me a while to remember, but drivers without removable devices using them only show up when “Show hidden devices” is checked. Sigh.

When Chasing Thunderbolt Drivers Down, Don’t Forget the Rules

How did I figure this out? I knew I had successfully installed both firmware and driver updates for Thunderbolt, because their installers reported successful completion. Indeed, when I ran DriverStore Explorer (RAPR.exe), it happily showed me a Thunderbolt item.

Chasing Thunderbolt/USB-C Drivers Down.rapr

Note the item in blue at the bottom of this list. It says Thunderbolt(TM) Controller – 15BF at the far right.
[Click image for full-sized view.]

Only then did I smite my forehead and quote Homer Simpson: “Doh!” A quick click on “Show hidden devices” in DevMgr and there was the ghosted/greyed-out listing I knew had to be in there somewhere.

Because I don’t own any Thunderbolt devices — yet — I am currently unable to make this item appear in normal text in Device Manager without using my head just a little. Interestingly enough, though, it does show up on my Lenovo X1 Extreme. It includes a pair of Thunderbolt ports and a controller to manage them. Thus,  it always has “something” going on in the Thunderbolt department even with no Thunderbolt devices attached. Here’s what that looks like when viewing attached Thunderbolt devices on that PC (available as a right-click option from the Thunderbolt icon in the right-hand app listing on the notification pane/area):

Now, I *need* to acquire some Thunderbolt hardware so I can really start understanding this stuff. Yeah, that’s the ticket!


October 4, 2019  11:50 AM

Mystery Error Code 0x80242016 Follows KB4524147

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
Error codes, Troubleshooting, Windows 10, Windows Update, Windows Update Management

Boy howdy! MS has been pushing updates at a furious rate lately. Just yesterday, KB4524147 bumped production-level 1903 to Build 18362.388. That install went swimmingly on 4 of 5 machines on which it was run. But machine #5 — my production desktop, as fate would have it — threw an interesting error code on the first try. That code  is 0x80242016. According to MS Docs Update Error Code Reference, it indicates that “The state of the update after its post-reboot operation has completed is unexpected.” As far as I can tell, this means that something odd about the state of the update registers following the reboot. Thus, it shows up in Update History as “failed.” Obviously, because not even Microsoft knows what’s up in this case, this mystery error code 0x80242016 follows KB4524147. Here’s a snapshot:

Mystery Error Code 0x80242016 Follows KB4524147.wuhistory

Something unexpected showed up the first time I attempted a KB4524147 install. Fortunately, the second try succeeded.
[Click image for full-sized view.]

When Mystery Error Code 0x80242016 Follows KB4524147, Then What?

My reaction recaps the old saying that begins: “If at first you don’t succeed . . .” And indeed, as the preceding screenshot shows, a success followed the initial failure on a second try. But I’m mystified as to what happened on my production PC. But not even Microsoft can tell for sure, apparently. I monkeyed around with a Registry key for Windows Update memory reservation before that reboot, though. And because this apparently causes deep changes to the way Windows Update behaves, that change could very well have messed with successful completion of the KB4524147 update. But I’m definitely guessing here.

Above all, I’m bemused by an encounter with an error code that essentially says “Something unexpected happened after reboot, so the update is cancelled.” Things do go sideways occasionally with Windows, as I’ve observed on many occasions. I guess I should be grateful that what failed on the first try, succeeded on the second. Otherwise, I’d still be trying to figure out — and fix — whatever it is that went wrong. Had that second attempt failed, my series of next steps would have been as follows (each subsequent step assumes the preceding one has failed):

1. Download the KB4524147 manual self-installing update package from the Microsoft Update Catalog (32-bit, 64-bit, ARM64), and attempt a manual install.
2. Use DISM to apply the update package on an offline version of the OS image.
3. Perform an in-place upgrade install of 1903, and attempt the update again on a cleaner OS.

Surely, one of those would have done the trick. But if not, it would then be time to ponder a clean re-install of 1903, or a wait to see if the next cumulative update works instead, with a fallback strategy of upgrading to 1909/19H2 when it becomes available in the next month or two. And so it goes, here in Windows-World!


October 3, 2019  7:21 PM

RDP Plus Sandbox Sometimes Equals Screen Confusion

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
Keyboard Shortcuts, RDP, Troubleshooting, Windows 10

I’ve been experimenting with the new Windows Sandbox (available in 1903 and higher-numbered Preview builds) lately. This morning, I found myself in a pickle. I was using RDP to access my Lenovo X220 Tablet, with the Sandbox window maximized therein. A key sequence restores the Sandbox from whole screen to partial screen mode — CTRL-ALT-BREAK. But alas, that’s the same key sequence that does likewise for RDP sessions as well. So, when I tried to reduce the size of the Sandbox window to access the RDP session outside the sandbox, I ended up reducing the size of the RDP session window instead. That’s why I assert that RDP plus Sandbox sometimes equals screen confusion. Ultimately, I ended up having to close my RDP session and walk over to the X220 Tablet keyboard and minimize the Sandbox window directly on its host machine.

RDP Plus Sandbox Sometimes Equals Screen Confusion.x220T

As long as I don’t maximize the Sandbox session in the RDP session Window on the remote PC, everything is OK.
[Click image for full-sized view.]<\p>

Why Say RDP Plus Sandbox Sometimes Equals Screen Confusion?

I’ve already explained that the key sequence to exit full-screen mode is the same for both tools. That makes the attempt to reduce one (the Sandbox inside the RDP session) reduce the other instead (the RDP session). I couldn’t figure out any way to minimize the Sandbox window within the RDP session without using the keystroke sequence. Then I started poking around the user interface at the top of the screen. With the Sandbox maximized, its control bar sits right underneath the control bar for the RDP session. So I found a “trick” that actually works. Here’s an image to help explain:

RDP Plus Sandbox Sometimes Equals Screen Confusion.bar-on-bar

If you look very closely just to the right of the top RDP bar, you can see the edge of the restore button in the underlying Sandbox bar.

If you can catch and click that edge of the Sandbox minimize control, things work as they should. But it took a bit of wingling about, and thinking about how the controls worked and where they were placed to come to this happy conclusion. Go figure!


October 1, 2019  9:58 AM

MS Explains Machine Learning Role in Windows 10 Update Experience

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
Machine learning, Windows 10, Windows Update Management, Windows Updates

Thanks, Mr. Brinkmann! He posted a Ghacks.net item yesterday that alerted me to a fascinating Microsoft Tech Community blog post dated September 26. Entitled “Using machine learning to improve the Windows 10 update experience.” It comes from a pair of MS data scientists named Archana Ramesh and Michael Stephenson. Their story basically explains that MS monitors up to 35 “areas of PC health.” (Each is  a collection of devices and/or facilities that could be subject to driver or installation issues.) Machine Learning (ML) lets the company use this data to offer updates to some PCs, but not others. This graph compares uninstalls, crashes and driver issues for ML-selected systems versus the whole population (baseline):

MS Explains Machine Learning Role in Windows 10 Update Experience.graph

Note: for Kernel Mode Crashes and Driver Issues, the ML model selected PCs experience fewer problems than the baseline.
[Click image for full-sized view.]

Why MS Explains Machine Learning Role in Windows 10 Update Experience?

Basically, MS gathers information about Windows PCs and their configurations. This data gets crunched so machine learning can  identify PCs for which updates work. This data comes from the Insider program, or others who voluntarily opt to install certain updates. Those configurations that work well are noted, for inclusion in the update offer. MS also recognizes likely problem PCs. Their receipt of an update offer becomes contingent on a fix for one or more blocking issues becoming available. Only when fixes are in place, is an update offer extended. The following flow chart visualizes this process:MS Explains Machine Learning Role in Windows 10 Update Experience.flow

Machines whose attributes indicate they’ll have no problems get the update offer. Those likely to face issues don’t come into play until fixes for expected issues are available.
[Click image for full-sized view.]

To me, this provides yet another good reason why Windows 10 users should permit MS to grab telemetry info from their PCs. Though certain suspicious individuals routinely silence their Windows 10 PCs and prevent them from “phoning home” to Microsoft, this kind of data is absolutely invaluable. And indeed, in my own experience, MS continues to improve in its detection of PCs likely to succeed with specific updates (and those likely to hit snags as well).

The authors also provide one of the best explanations of so-called safeguard holds I’ve seen anywhere from Microsoft. Look for a section entitled “Identifying safeguard holds” and read it over. It shows exactly how ML recognizes PCs that need them, and can make a big difference for users and IT pros alike.


September 27, 2019  12:51 PM

Smarter Web-based Intel Driver Update Tool

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
Device drivers, device management, Windows 10

In perusing my usual Windows info and news this morning, I came across a Windows Latest story that gave me cause to check my Lenovo X380 graphics driver. It seems Intel released new set drivers for its graphics chipsets, as of September 25. The story specifically identifies Intel UHD Graphics 620 and 630 devices. These updates came out to address reported issues with the Start Menu and the Microsoft Store. Because my Lenovo Yoga X380 uses the Intel UHD Graphics 620, I thought I’d better check its status. That said, my first check was using the Lenovo Vantage tool, the UWP app that has taken over for their older System Update .exe-based application. Then, just for grins I also ran the Intel Driver & Support Assistant (ID&SA) as well. I was pleased to observe that this new-ish item is indeed a smarter web-based Intel driver update tool.

Smarter Web-based Intel Driver Update Tool.uhd620

Device Manager confirms that the Yoga X380 incorporates UHD 620 graphics.
[Click image for full-sized view.]

What Makes This a Smarter Web-based Intel Driver Update Tool?

Glad you asked! I stick to the Lenovo Vantage tool for updates on my two new laptops. (The other one is an awesome hexacore X1 Extreme.) I wondered if the updater would offer a new version though one hasn’t hit the Lenovo update channel. To my delighted approbation, it did not. Here’s what I see for detail when I click on the graphics chipset in the ID&SA’s web-based interface:

Smarter Web-based Intel Driver Update Tool.620output

The ID&SA tool recognizes a vendor-supplied custom graphics driver, and advises the user to look for a replacement at the Lenovo website. Perfect!
[Click image for full-sized view.]

Of course, that refusal is just what I’d hoped to see. The last thing you want on a laptop is a new driver that doesn’t work properly. When in doubt, Intel is absolutely correct to refuse delivery, thereby protecting the unwary from themselves. Good job, Intel!

One More Thing …

You can tell by looking at the entry above the UHD 620 in the preceding screencap that I’m currently using RDP to access the X380. That explains the presence of the “Microsoft Remote Display Adapter.” It takes first position under the Graphics heading because it’s the driver in current use. Even though the machine is to the left of me on a rolling file drawer next to my desk, it’s easier to interact with my desktop and the X380 using RDP. That way, I can interact with (and bounce between) desktop and laptop at the same time.

Note Added October 1, 2019

Today, when I checked the Lenovo Vantage application, guess what showed up? Intel HD Graphics Driver version 26.20.100.6951, which is replacing my older 26.20.100.6576 driver right now. In the readme file (nicely available through the Vantage interface under a “read more” link I see the date is 9/26/2019 on the driver item.  Only one day later than Intel’s release date, even though it took another week to make it into official update channels. All in all, not bad for an OEM customization follow-through.


September 25, 2019  5:05 PM

20H1 Gains Cloud Reset Capability

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
system recovery, Windows 10

A few weeks ago, I had the pleasure and privilege of sitting in on an NDA, Windows Insider MVP only briefing. It came from Aaron Lower, Microsoft’s Program Manager on the Core OS and Intelligent Edge (COSINE) Fundamentals team. Some of what I learned then I can now share with you, because Aaron has “guest-written” a post to the Windows Insider blog. It’s entitled “Optimize Windows 10 PC reset using the cloud.” It’s very much worth reading, but I’ll recap some high points here. In a nutshell, it reports that Windows Insider Previews Builds 18970 and up — 20H1 gains cloud reset capability.

What Does 20H1 Gains Cloud Reset Capability Mean?

It means that when you click Settings → Update & Security → Recovery → Reset this PC, you’ll see a screen like this one on your machine:

20H1 Gains Cloud Reset Capability.screen

Note the Cloud Download option in first position above.
[Click image for full-sized view; Source: Microsoft.]

Note the top item in this new screen. It reads “Cloud download Download and reinstall Windows.” Lower describes the intent of this option very nicely as follows:

You can use the new cloud download option to get Windows from the cloud to reinstall instead of reusing the existing Windows files to construct a fresh copy. This can be a more reliable way to reinstall Windows and, depending on internet speed, can be a faster as well. To achieve a similar result previously you would have to download Windows and create a USB stick, but because this is built-in to Windows it doesn’t require the extra steps of creating a USB stick to do the installation.

I plan to try it out right away on one of my Insider Preview test machines. I ‘d like to see how it works (and how long it takes). But first, I’ve got to make a backup because it will need to be restored again afterward. That’s because my understanding remains that Reset still blows away all your installed apps and applications, personalizations, settings, preferences and so forth. I don’t want to have to redo all that work, so I’ll simply try it out, report on what happens, and then restore the previous backup to return to my normal working environment.


September 22, 2019  9:07 PM

Mystery Device Equals Moto Z Android Phone

Ed Tittel Ed Tittel Profile: Ed Tittel
Device drivers, Device Manager, Troubleshooting

Poking around in Device Manager today, I noticed something I’d not seen before under the “Disk drives” heading. It showed up as Linux File-Stor USB Device (LFSUD). WTF? But of course, Google is always helpful when it comes to resolving mystery strings. A literal search on LFSUD turned up a post on the Ubuntu MATE Community that very quickly filled me in. I have a Moto Z Android cellphone, and I’ve plugged it into my PC on occasion for file transfers and access. That, it seems, shows mystery device equals Moto Z Android phone.

Mystery Device Equals Moto Z Android Phone.properties

A search on the device name resolves the mystery:
Linux File-Stor Gadget USB Device.
[Click item for full-sized view.]

Determining Mystery Device Equals Moto Z Android Phone

Given the post that I found (duplicated also at XDA Developers), it was quite clear that hooking up my Moto Z for charging and access was responsible for this entry. I confirmed this by disconnecting the Android device, then running Uwe Sieber’s (USB) Device Cleanup Tool. Sure enough, it was gone, gone, gone. I’m not sure what’s responsible for this literal device name showing up in Windows 10. But now, I’m convinced that the Moto Z and the LFSUD are one and the same thing, device wise. Who knew?

In fact, when I turn on my Moto Z while it’s attached to my PC, it shows up in Explorer. And also in Device Manager, the Moto Z shows up under the “Portable Devices” heading under its own name (and there’s no longer an LFSUD entry under disk drives, either). Go figure!

Mystery Device Equals Moto Z Android Phone.explorer

Mystery solved!


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