PowerShell for Windows Admins

Oct 31 2017   7:00AM GMT

PowerShell v6: #2 Remoting

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway


Ask any number of users and you’ll get at least that many different answers but at its core PowerShell is an administration tool. To be effective your administration tools have to be able to access remote machines. RDP is the traditional way to do this for GUI bound admins – should that be the coding challenged? PowerShell remoting is the answer scripting and automation.

In PowerShell v5.1 you have a number of remoting options.

The simplest uses DCOM/RPC at the individual cmdlet level e.g. the *-process; *-service; *-computer cmdlets. This gives you ease of use but depends on you being able to use DCOM remotely. DCOM is blocked by default by the Windows firewall and isn’t a network (router) friendly protocol. The advice is to use it where you can if you need to but you’re better off using PowerShell remoting.

PowerShell remoting, introduced in PowerShell uses WS-MAN for communication with the remote server. Your target needs remoting enabled and the WinRM service to be running. Remoting is enabled by default in Windows Server 2012 and later but has to be enabled in all client versions of Windows and Windows Server 2008 R2 and earlier.

Within a domain remoting is easy because Kerberos authentication is available dramatically reducing the need for credentials. There are a few issues though. Remoting out or or into the domain can be problematic because Kerberos doesn’t support that. You need to use the trusted hosts option (not recommended) or certificate based remoting (safer but harder to configure). There’s also the double hop issue to contend with where you can’t issue a command from computer A that runs on computer B and accesses computer C. You can overcome this using CredSSP or an AD based delegation option.

PowerShell v3 brought a further expansion in remoting option with the introduction of CIM Sessions. These provide remoting options over WS-MAN for the CIM cmdlets (the WMI cmdlets use DCOM) that are analogous to the PowerShell remoting options.

In PowerShell v6 the remoting options change.

The DCOM based remoting option for individual cmdlets has been or is in the process of being removed.

WS-MAN based PowerShell remoting is still available between Windows machines – v6 to v6 or v6 to earlier PowerShell version or earlier PowerShell version to v6. Between Windows machines WS-MAN based remoting works as you would expect with all of the same issues you’ve come know and love through PowerShell versions v2-v5.1.

You also get Linux to Windows remoting over WS-MAN (basic and NTLM based authentication only). You need to install the OMI provider – https://github.com/Microsoft/omi/releases – and the PRSP package – https://github.com/PowerShell/psl-omi-provider.

PowerShell v6 has switched to using SSH as the primary communication protocol for remoting. SSH (using the OpenSSH project which isn’t currently production ready )  will be the focus of future remoting development. SSH based remoting works for Linux <-> Linux, Linux <-> Windows, Windows <-> Linux, Windows <-> Windows but its PowerShell v6 only and won’t be back ported (current team statement) to earlier versions of PowerShell.

SSH based remoting works in the scenarios given above – see demos from PowerShell Summit 2017 – but has issues. Its a very painful process to install and enable OpenSSH on a Windows machine. Doing this across your environment would be a huge job. There is an install script (incomplete last time I looked) and a chocolately package if you use that package management option but its still no where as easy as enabling WS-MAN based remoting.

SSH based remoting supplies a great option for the remoting into and out a domain scenarios but the current reduction in functionality available through PowerShell v6 compared to v5.1 means that while you can create a remote session to the machine you may not be able to do what you need.

If you have OMI installed on your Linux box you can make CIM calls to that box and establish CIM sessions. You won’t get much back as there aren’t the equivalent CIM classes for Linux boxes that you’re used to on Windows. Installing OMI is a pre-requisite for DSC for Linux.

Remoting in PowerShell v6 is changing – some changes are beneficial and some will cause problems as they are very definitely breaking changes from earlier version of PowerShell. If you haven’t investigated PowerShell v6 you need to do so. You need to determine what remoting options you need in your environment and how PowerShell v6, v5,1 WS-MAN and SSH are going to coexist or what subset of those options you’ll use.

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