It could have been caused by update KB977165.
I would try removing all hardware devices (including CD/DVD ROMs) to see if that makes any difference.
If you have more than one memory module, I would remove all but one, and would try switching modules if the error persists.
Also, I would run CHKDSK /r from the recovery console again to see if it keeps finding errors.
One other thing to try would be disabling any unnecessary feature from the BIOS.