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This type of error is based on system file is missing/ corrupted or not found at the time if booting. Try this one, assuming this is a single booting system that is only Linux is installed. Now reboot the system and press Shift + E. It shows a place where you can write as,
linux init=/bin/sh and press Enter key
Now it depends on how many partitions are there. To see the list, type as, mount | grep "/dev/sd*" and press Enter key
Now look for /dev/sda then the count number like sda1. sda2. sda3, sda4 and so on. Sometimes it may not show serial no wise like sda1, sda2, sda3, sda4 instead of that, it might be sda1, sda2, sda4, sda6 or something like that. It is necessary to unmounts each partition before go for repairing. Type command like, umount /dev/sda1 then type for repairing command like
fsck -n -y /dev/sda1 and press Enter key. Again unmounts the next partition with umount command and run the sane repair command. Run the same commands until all partitions will be completed (don't worry data will not be damaged). After completed, run this command like,
mount -o remount, rw / and press Enter key.