Sounds like the hard drive controller might be failing.
I’m not trying to be funny but let me add a step or two to your troubleshooting procedure.
first disconnect the computer from power completely.
if the controller is a “daughter card”, remove it, clean the contacnts and replace it.
replace the ribbon cable.
can you use another channel on the computer to connect the drive?
double check jumpers on the drive if applicable.
if the drives area “exactly” like the bad one, check the OEM website for driver issues and do the same at MS regarding OS/driver issues.
do you have an external enclosure which you can use to access the drive through the USB interface?
is the drive indentified by the BIOS?
if you give me the make/model i can check our database for issues about that chipset code on the drive itself.