Many smartphones can be connected to your PC and laptop. When they are, your smartphone appears as if it were a USB-connected disk drive. You may have been even treating your smartphone as if it were a thumb drive.
If this is the case, then it might be a different story, particularly if you have an infected file or program.
If Windows malware is on the smartphone, you plug it into your computer, and autorun is running, the Windows-based malware could start running and infect your machine.
If you’re using your smartphone to carry software from one place to another, there’s nothing special about the smartphone that would inoculate you from malware. It’s still going to have the virus. In that sense, the smartphone can certainly still carry viruses.