Cloud infrastructure offerings increased in resiliency in 2015, assuaging the fears of many businesses looking to switch some applications or transition production IT entirely to the cloud. Enterprises want to save money while retaining the same performance, which cloud providers aim to deliver. Granted, 2015 wasn’t a perfect year.
While evaluating cloud providers’ reliability is difficult since there are few independent data sources, it is not impossible. SearchCloudComputing created a general assessment of cloud infrastructure performance in 2015 by combining a few sources of data, including a CloudHarmony snapshot of cloud provider performance over a 30-day period and Nasuni’s reports on the cloud providers that it uses.
In February 2015, Google’s infrastructure as a service offering Google Compute Engine (GCE) experienced a global outage for over two hours. The outage was at its peak for forty minutes, during which outbound traffic from GCE experienced 70% loss of flows.
Months later, Amazon Web Services (AWS) experienced outages over a weekend in September that affected content delivery giant Netflix and throttled service for other U.S.-East-1 region AWS users while recovery efforts took place. Compared to previous years when AWS experienced some major outages, 2015’s cloud problems were definitely less major, more of a slowdown than a full stop. However, the list of AWS services affected was longer than the list of services unaffected.
Is Colo the Way to Go?
Even though offerings from cloud providers are improving, some companies found that the cloud just couldn’t handle their business needs. Since 2011, Groupon has been moving away from the cloud and to a colocation provider. Cost drove the online deals company towards running its own data center IT, with its enterprise needs covered in nearly every area, from databases and storage to hosting virtual machines.
However, colocation providers aren’t free of problems. A study of the costs of data center outages from Emerson and Ponemon Institutes found that UPS system failure accounted for a fourth of all unplanned outages, while cybercrime rose from 2% of outages in 2010 to 22% in 2016.
Verizon’s recent data center outage that took airline company JetBlue offline for three hours and grounded flights highlights the importance of failover plans and redundant power. Verizon, which runs its own data centers for its telecom business, is a surprising sufferer in this outage scenario, according to some observers.
Companies that run owned data centers aren’t free from the same problems that plague cloud and colocation data centers, from stale diesel fuel to poor disaster recovery planning in advance of an attack, error or natural disaster. Data center IT staff must consider how much oversight they have over potential problem areas, and how much control they want — or can have — over the outage and how it is resolved. Visibility into the outage and its aftermath also will vary from provider to provider.
Each year, SearchDataCenter ushers in the holiday season with a geek gift guide by Beth Pariseau, who enjoys a brief break from breaking stories about AWS public cloud to tell you about what to find on Amazon’s other major property.
This year, SearchDataCenter’s writers and editors decided to get in on the fun, and share what tech gift they’d like to unwrap:
Geekiest gift he’s ever gotten? “A Motorola Xoom.” You might remember the Super Bowl commercial for it.
Michelle Boisvert, executive site editor: “The Garmin Forerunner 920XT watch. As a triathlete and a Type A personality (they go hand in hand), I like to track everything during my training and races. What was my swim pace, my transition time, my cadence on the bike? Currently, I have two different watches I use: an old school Timex wristwatch for swimming and a Garmin FR60 for running. This works for training — when I have time to swap watches — but not in races. The Garmin Forerunner 920XT is a single watch that tracks swim distance and speed (in the pool or in open water!), pace, power output, heart rate and cadence on the bike (with optional bike mount) and all the bells and whistles of data wanted during a run. So, if anyone happens to have an extra $450 lying around, you know where to find me.”
Geekiest gift she ever received? “Probably a Tanita scale that measures weight and body fat percentage. And no, I did not want this. No one wants to see a scale around the holidays!”
Meredith Courtemanche, senior site editor: “I would love a new iPod. My iPod Touch is over five years old now, and likes to repeat a song two, sometimes three times before moving on to the next one. If anyone wants to come over and trance out to Bing Crosby’s White Christmas on repeat, hit me up.”
Geekiest gift she’s ever gotten? “Does a VTech from childhood count? It looked like a laptop anyway and since this was before toys could go online, my data is safe in an attic somewhere.”
Stephen J. Bigelow, senior technology editor: “I could go for a nice low-profile bluetooth headset for the gym so that I can play music from my smartphone and still be able to work the machines without those silly, wired earbuds falling out or yanking my smartphone to the ground.”
What about you, IT reader? What do you want for the holidays?
The summer weather didn’t slow down anyone in the cool, dark halls of the data center. Catch up on the big news and expert advice from the past month that other data center pros found valuable.
The big picture:
These trends, shared at the Gartner IT operations conference, will shape the face of the data center sector for the coming years.
Top story on jobs:
The buzz at Red Hat Summit included talk of converged and hyper-converged infrastructures. Many attendees were keen to learn if and how these systems would change their daily work.
Opinions to stir up conversation:
Do you run a DC data center with high-voltage racks built into a glacier? No? Neither do most of your peers. But just because a concept missed mainstream adoption or faded from use does not mean that we can’t learn something from it for tomorrow’s data centers.
Most helpful tip:
Big data means data sprawl and more work for data centers. This tip outlines ways to corral enterprise data and store it without exhausting your hardware and staff resources.
In the news:
HP told attendees at its HP Discover conference that the impetus for its Grommet user interface came from a decision to look like one company across its various enterprise tools and applications.
The June issue of Modern Infrastructure
This e-zine covers everything from micro services to mega convergence in data center storage. Check out expert stories on bare metal, desktop security and big data as well.
The problem with getting older is that I sometimes find myself set in my ways — gravitating toward things that I knew (or was at least interested in). I confess that I sometimes feel a little overwhelmed by the many abstract concepts emerging across the industry like big data and the Internet of Things just to name a few. After all, I’m a hardware guy, and finding ways to monetize or justify business value in 26 billion connected devices or securely deliver streaming content to a multitude of remote device users is tougher to wrap my brain around than the newest Intel command set. There are moments when I’d rather just move to Nebraska and raise alpacas.
But watching this morning’s keynote address by Gartner’s Chris Howard on “Scenarios for the future of IT” at Gartner IT Operations Strategies & Solutions Summit in Orlando, Fla., reminded me of something that I’d long-forgotten: IT has never been about servers and networks and stacks and all of the engineering stuff; IT is about solving business problems and enabling the business.
Back in those ancient days before the Internet (yes, I was there), IT supported the business by storing and serving up files and even supporting the groundbreaking notion of collaboration. Later, networks and user bases expanded, and businesses needed IT to solve new problems, allowing businesses to support remote users and market the business differently on that thing called the world-wide web.
As we fast-forward to today, Howard’s hour-long keynote focused on the challenges of the digital business. This included the importance of context, providing access to data that isn’t tied to devices, where devices have the intelligence to determine where you are and what you need. He also talked about the need for analytics that extend to the edge of the environment (not just in a data center) to decide what data is important and how it should be used.
And while Howard cited numerous examples of these issues — where many of the working elements are already in place — there was NO mention of the underlying systems, networks, software, or other elements needed to make all of these business activities possible. It was then that I realized there shouldn’t be.
It’s not that the underlying parts aren’t important. It’s just that the underlying parts aren’t the point. Thinking back, it really never mattered what server or disk group served up files back in the day. The only goal was that IT needed to deploy, configure and maintain that capability. While today’s business demands and pace has changed dramatically, the basic role of IT remains essentially unchanged; to enable, protect and support those competitive business capabilities in a reliable, cost-effective manner. The underlying “stuff” is there, and IT professionals have the savvy to make it all work.
So the real challenge for today’s IT pros is to embrace these many new ideas and find the way to map those complex business needs to the underlying infrastructure, which must inevitably evolve and grow to meet ever-greater bandwidth, storage, and computing demands.
Who knows what the next few days in Orlando might bring? Maybe this old dog might actually learn a new trick or two?
Google used machine learning to parse the multitudinous data inputs on its data center operations, as a way to bust through a plateau in energy efficiency evidenced by its measured power usage effectiveness (PUE).
In a white paper describing the effort to improve PUE below 1.12, Google’s Jim Gao, data center engineer, wrote that the machine learning approach does what humans cannot: Model all the possible operating configurations and predict the best one for energy use in a given setting.
The 19 factors that interrelate to affect energy usage are as follows, according to Google’s program:
- Total server IT load (kW)
- Total campus core network room IT load (kW)
- Total number of process water pumps (PWPs) running
- Mean PWP variable frequency drive (VFD) speed: Percent
- Total number of condenser water pumps (CWP) running
- Mean CWP VFD speed: Percent
- Total number of cooling towers running
- Mean cooling tower leaving water temperature set point
- Total number of chillers running
- Total number of dry coolers running
- Total number of chilled water injection pumps running
- Mean chilled water injection pump set point temperature
- Mean heat exchanger approach temperature
- Outside air wet bulb temperature
- Outside air dry bulb temperature
- Outside air enthalpy (kJ/kg)
- Outside air relative humidity: Percent
- Outdoor wind speed
- Outdoor wind direction
Gao states: “A typical largescale [data center] generates millions of data points across thousands of sensors every day, yet this data is rarely used for applications other than monitoring purposes.” Machine learning can understand nonlinear changes in efficiency better than traditional engineering formulas.
Read the paper here.
Time’s tight and alerts are always rolling in, so you’re bound to miss some great articles during the month. If you only have time to peruse a few good reads, here are the stories that other data center pros recommend.
Most controversial topic:
The tension between outsourcing to the cloud and keeping workloads in the owned on-premises data center is increasing, and especially pressuring traditional job roles within the IT department.
Must-watch technology trend:
Flash storage offers some impressive improvements over disk-based technologies, and the integration options range from server-side flash to full arrays and everything in between.
Look inside your peers’ data centers:
Enterprises aren’t in the business of running data centers — they sell goods and provide services. But data centers are crucial to operations. Here’s how a coffee company and a law-school centric organization work better thanks to their data centers.
Facebook’s Phil Dibowitz talks about the company’s DevOps migration and how they work with Chef and other open-source tools.
Best planning tips:
Parts of your data center are due — perhaps long over-due — for improvements. Smart investments will pay off with higher performance, energy savings and more reliable service.
The May issue of Modern Infrastructure tackles containers, cloud and colocation options, the changes in Ethernet technology and more. Ever heard of ChatOps?
The IT team never really gets a break — it’s the first week of July and everyone else is taking a long weekend, but you’re on call, minding the beeps and flashes of some uncaring, disinterested servers. While the storage array quietly dedupes its backups, take a little downtime with data center comics, viral videos and other fun links.
This post was inspired by a conversation with Kip and Gary cartoonist Diane Alber. You can check out her comic at http://www.kipandgary.com/and see what kind of trouble could be brewing in your data center if you did clock off for a week at the beach.
An oldie but goodie, no one makes data center backup media come to life like John Cleese: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MgxgYL5P4z4&feature=kp
Yeah, you’ve been there. The Website is Down pits the sys admin against the world, or at least against the sales team in the conference room. Commiserate with the series on YouTube (warning: language, though we’ve chosen a safe-for-work episode to start you off): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DlbrL1H1ngs
Let’s hope you haven’t been here– this .gif of a server rack falling off the loading dock is strangely mesmerizing: http://i.imgur.com/mk5rbvg.gif
Is there one person on your IT team looking a little frazzled and muttering to himself about five nines? Try writing it all down, a la Sh*t My Cloud Evangelist Says (again, language): http://www.shitmycloudevangelistsays.com/blog/
What are your favorites? DevOps reaction .gifs? Network admin rants? Lego men running a colo?
Data center colocation providers have gotten creative with where they place facilities to save energy or increase security, and one cloud provider has found its home underground.
Lightedge Solutions, a cloud infrastructure and colocation provider in the U.S. Midwest, opened a facility in SubTropolis Technology Center, a converted limestone mine in Kansas City, Mo. The underground data center build eschewed precast walls and typical construction, saving 3-6 months on the new build compared to an above-ground data center, according to president and COO Jeffrey Springborn.
“Looking back, everything has gone really smoothly for a first project in a retired mine,” Springborn said.
Over its 100-year history, IBM has reinvented itself numerous times to remain competitive in hot, emerging markets or, more rarely, just to survive and remain whole.
The last reinvention 20 years ago addressed the second reason when IBM grew too fat and happy about 20 years ago, and missed a couple of important technology trends below the mainframe platform. The company put up an unprecedented three consecutive years of losses, and seriously considered breaking itself up into a loose federation of 13 business units, called the Baby Blues. But then Lou Gerstner came in and took things in exactly the opposite direction, making the units work together more cooperatively.
Today, IBM doesn’t need an immediate reinvention — but maybe it should start thinking about it. For several quarters in 2013, sales of IBM’s mid-range servers, its Power Series, plummeted dramatically. Despite IBM’s steady delivery of new hardware technology and decision to replace Unix with Linux as the primary operating system for Power servers — a wise choice — a growing number of data centers are choosing Intel-based servers instead.
Compounding IBM’s woes, its X Series of Intel-based servers that compete with HP and Dell has shrinking margins. So much so that earlier this year, IBM was engaged in talks with Lenovo to sell off the series.
Most observers don’t see IBM exiting the hardware business any time soon — mainframe sales have actually picked up significantly this year and its Power Series appears to be producing enough profits for now. But others already see Big Blue transitioning to more of a software-and-services company, one keenly focused on cloud opportunities. One that will, oh yeah, also sell some hardware.
“I think you will see IBM move from a hardware-and-services company to a services-plus-software company just because of the way enterprises are consuming software. [IBM] are setting themselves up now for what they see coming over the next number of years,” said Matt Casey, an analyst with Technology Business Research in Hampton, N.H. “If this shift results in growth over the short term, great. But I see this as the beginning of a larger journey.”
This shift in IBM’s roadmap, whether intentional or not, is already taking place financially. At the end of fiscal 2012, IBM generated $25.4 billion in software revenues, with hardware producing only $17.6 billion. IBM Global Services easily holds up its end of the software-plus-services focus, raking in $40.2 billion last year. And the gap is growing wider still in 2013.
But can IBM’s software business grow fast enough to offset its hardware business declining? Unlikely, given the recent growth of IBM’s bread-and-butter server-based applications, and the fact its cloud-based products portfolio, while growing, is only about $2.2 billion right now, with a goal of reaching $7 billion by 2015.
And, are we looking at a smaller IBM over the next few years? The company has always proved adept at growing the top line, even when it sells off billions of dollars worth of business, such as its still-profitable $11 billion PC business to Lenovo back in 2004.
“IBM is a company run by the CFO, so becoming a smaller company would be a difficult case to make with stakeholders,” Casey said. “But if they decide the Intel (server) business and even the Power business no longer fits its core mission, they will sell it.”
Casey adds that IBM would take the proceeds from selling such units and buy or develop whatever it needs to maintain its size and ability to fulfill its core mission as a full-service provider of information processing technologies for large enterprises.
It is difficult to predict if current server hardware trends will force another reinvention of the world’s second-largest IT company, but it will be interesting to see what new directions IBM may take to stay on track.
The tradeoff between the high cost of better performance and the forward-thinking energy efficiency is something IT shops must ponder when deciding what servers to buy. As chips shrink and become more efficient through manufacturing, the costs to chipmakers go up and those costs are passed on to buyers. So how can server chip design keep improving without incurring the cost of building whole new manufacturing facilities?
Researchers in China may help existing chip infrastructures become more efficient by improving the flow of electrons through semi-floating gates. All well and good, but both ARM and Intel boast fast, energy efficient server chips already and semi-floating gates are not a new concept.
Let’s start with the Chinese team. In a paper published in Science Magazine, the researchers describe a way to use a hybrid of the floating gates found in flash memory and the traditional logic gates, which use complex rules to define which bits get through, and are used in most chips.
The researchers’ method is essentially a modification to the transistor’s isolation of the gate — floating gates are completely isolated from electron inputs and drains, where other gates are connected — and the research team says it can get better speed than current chips and has an energy efficient operating voltage of less than 2 Volts.
Looking at ARM and Intel chip efficiency improvements, it seems many of these come down to the fabrication process and less to the design of the chip itself. Take a recent ARM development by SuVolta, for example. It basically swapped out existing transistors for what it calls “Deeply Depleted Channel” transistors, which use dynamic body bias to reduce electric current leakage while the transistors are turned off. This isn’t necessarily a change to chip design, just switching out technology to consume less power.
Intel, on the other hand, is shifting manufacturing processes to 22 nanometer fabrication. This approach shrinks transistors and keeps them cooler during operation, thus helping to conserve energy. Instead of the side-by-side approach used by many chip makers, Intel has started stacking its transistors. This method improves performance and shortens the path of electricity on the chip, but producing 3D transistors requires up-front manufacturing investments, and may not provide enough return on investment to make it worth pursuing.
That’s the trouble with both SuVolta and Intel’s approaches. They rely on cost-prohibitive manufacturing processes to make smaller and more efficient chips. Every time a new transistor design is developed, a whole new set of equipment must be built. Plus, according to some analysts, Moore’s law is coming to an end, so smaller chips may not be a long term solution. Chip makers can only use manufacturing to boost efficiency for so long before they can’t shrink any further.
The current issues with return on investment for server chip manufacturing combined with the future limits of manufacturing technology are why the semi-floating gates proposed by the Chinese research team may be worth exploring — they’re not based on shrinking parts. For now, however, changes to chip fabrication seem to be making positive strides toward energy efficiency.
What do you think? Do prohibitive fabrication costs and a looming end to Moore’s law mean server chip makers need to find alternative methods for efficiency?