“The Heralds of Resource Shaping” on Google Video tells the story of the origins of the Internet. At thirty minutes, this documentary is a bit longer than the average online video (or attention span) but well worth the time for anyone interested in learning more about the ARPANET. The speakers interviewed in the embed below are listed in the Wikipedia entry for the “The Heralds of Resource Shaping.”
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No one person or even small group of persons exclusively “invented” the Internet. It is the result of many years of ongoing collaboration among people in government and the university community.
The Computer History Museum created this high resolution image of an ARPANET logical map circa 1977, for those interested in a visualization of the early network.
The discovery of Thursday’s Word of the Day, memristor, has been theorized about since 1971, when the possibility for a fourth fundamental passive circuit element was first described. The invention, fully described in a Nature article on memristance, The Missing Memristor Found, has thrown the science of integrated circuitry into a bit of…. flux.
[Image Credit: IEEE’s Spectrum]
“Electronic theorists have been using the wrong pair of variables all these years–voltage and charge. The missing part of electronic theory was that the fundamental pair of variables is flux and charge. ”
Read HP’s Memristor FAQ for more information.
Introductory classes in electronics are big on circuit diagrams involving different combinations of resistors, capacitors and inductors. Now, researchers say that they have discovered a fourth fundamental passive circuit element, one that complements those well-known three and fills in a gap in the basic equations that describe the relationships between voltage, current, and magnetic flux. The possibility of such a circuit element, known as the ‘memristor,’ was first described in 1971, but until now no one has found a device with the properties of that missing element. A group of scientists at HP Labs found that in nanoscale materials, however, the ‘memristance’ property becomes easier to see.
The find could lead to lower power, instant-on computers, as well as novel types of circuitry. We’ll talk with one of the discoverers of the modern memristor about the find and its potential applications.
In the embed below, Linus Torvalds, the creator of Linux, “tells the story of how he went from writing code as a graduate student in Helsinki in the early 1990s to becoming an icon for open source software by the end of the decade. ” (YouTube shownotes)
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The video was produced by the Computer History Museum.
A telepresence room is a conference space dedicated to high-end videoconferencing. In this video, telepresence provider TelePresence Tech demonstrates a new telepresence system that includes robust eye-contact and 3D visualization functionalities.
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For more on what’s happening in the world of telepresence, read SearchITChannel.com’s special report on telepresence and Rivka Gewirtz Little’s article, Telepresence comes of age; partners play catch-up.
Do you think much about the future of the Internet? Last week, the academics and technologists who consider the matter professionally gathered at the Berkman Center at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, Massachusetts to hail ten years of achievement in cyberlaw and digital activisim . Check out this timeline to see how the Berkman Center has grown.
Berkman at 10 combined conference with celebration, as Harvard professors, staff, alumni and guests convened for sessions that included presentations from distinguished professors, a discussion with the co-founder of Wikipedia, a panel featuring Viacom’s general counsel, a former FCC chairman and venture capitalist Ester Dyson — all within the course of the first day. Dinners, sessions in the style of an unconference, a talk about the future of journalism from TalkingPointMemo‘s Joshua Micah Marshall and seminars that addressed net neutrality, netizenship and much more continued the second day, followed by a gala that honored the achievements of those who have made outstanding contributions to the Internet’s impact on society over the past decade. Winners included the founders of MideastYouth.com, Connexions, FreeRice.com, PublicResource.org, Worldspace.com. Highest honor went to Jeffrey Cunard and Bruce Keller for their pro bono work.
The men and women considering the future of the Internet used the medium itself to meet, greet, intermingle and collectively think about the topic at hand. As you might expect at a conference packed with cyberluminaries, computer scientists, engineers, journalists and assorted digerati, the two days were an exercise in hyperconnectivity. Conferees listened in the audience, watched live video feeds from overflow rooms or participated remotely using uncommonly robust social media tools.
“The question is not freedom of speech, the question is freedom *after* speech.”
– Esther Dyson, quoting an unnamed Russian
The Berkman Center created a Berkman at 10 wiki where you can find much more information about the conference, its agenda, attendees, the sessions and the Center itself. Projects founded, funded or organized by Berkman and its Fellows have been far-reaching in their influence and are frequently grounded in the entrepreneurial focus and intellectual rigor of its founders. They include:
- Open Net, which investigates and analyzes the various filtering and surveillance practices around the world.
- The Publius Project, which features essays and conversations about constitutional moments on the Net.
- Global Voices Online (GVO), which focuses on highlighting global conversations in blogs that exist outside the world of TechMeme, the “A-list” and Silicon Valley.
- A new project of GVO is Voices Without Votes, which covers what is being discussed about the US elections throughout the world’s blogs.
- StopBadware.org, which identifies Websites infected with spyware or malware and, with Google’s help, interjects warnings when users try to access them.
The conference was kicked off by the Dean of Harvard Law School, Elena Kagan, who announced that the Berkman Center for Internet and Society now a university-wide research center at Harvard. She also urged the crowd to lobby Jonathan Zittrain to come back to Harvard and led an impromptu chant to urge him to consider the invitation. Professor Nesson, cofounder of the Berkman Center, then introduced Professor Jonathan Zittrain, aka “JZ,” to the conference.
Professor Zittrain’s thesis is that the “generative Internet,” the combination of a programmable computer and an open, “writable” Internet, is in danger from tethered appliances like the iPhone and TiVo or walled gardens of non-portable data like Facebook. Doc Searls posted the following graphic within his “Understanding Infrastructure” article for Linux Journal:
In the PC and the network, the narrow point in the hourglass is where the generative power rests, in the Internet Protocol and the operating system. During the session, Zittrain repeatedly referred to this power as the “dark energy” of the Internet and raised concerns that the means to contribute could gradually be abridged or blocked in the future by corporations or governments through changes in the network or locking down the OS. The iPhone and other appliances like the Chumby or XBox are examples of the latter.
Further thoughts and analysis of the session can be found from Ethan Zuckerman, David Weinberger, Patrick Philippe Meier, Andy Sellars, Daithí Mac Sithigh, Dan Farber and Jim Rapoza. Zittrain’s book, “The Future of the Internet,” is available at futureoftheinternet.org.
Professor John Palfrey, the executive director of the Berkman Center, followed with a session on the impact of the Internet on politics and democracy. The presentation reached much further than the U.S. Presidential election, though the impact of YouTube, socially networked fundraising and the netroots has been far reaching domestically. He also presented three crucial arguments, each of which may be viewed and commented upon related ideas at the wiki at Berkman and is quoted below:
- The Internet allows more free speech from more people than ever before, but states are finding ways to filter and limit that speech.
- There is greater autonomy of the individual because of the Internet.
- The formation of online groups will alter the form and function of existing organizations and institutions with unknown impacts on democracy and governance.
Palfrey’s talk reflected many of Zittrain’s concerns: the very openness and disruptive change that a generative Internet presents for free speech may be dangerous enough to repressive regimes that technological steps, like the Great Firewall of China, may be taken to limit access or the ability to publish freely.
Palfrey presented a map of the Farsi blogosphere (above) and noted, however, that the Iranian blogosphere is the fourth largest in the world, including a range of conservative, religious, secular and liberal views. The map was produced by John Kelly and Bruce Etling for their paper, “Mapping Iran’s Online Public: Politics and Culture in the Persian Blogosphere.”
One of the more intriguing notions that came out of the session was the concept of “flashdrive democracy,” where Palfrey used the example of Cuban dissidents who smuggled contraband video of student protests out of Cuba using a sneakernet and published them to YouTube.
In the third session of the day, Yochai Benkler, professor and author of the Wealth of Networks, interviewed Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Wikipedia. The two men deconstructed the sprawling online encyclopedia and discussed different models of peer production.
“The threat is not the money, the threat is the authority over knowledge.”
– Yochai Benkler
The links above are far from the only reactions to the sessions, of course. See the Center’s collection of online coverage of Berkman at 10 for more information about the unconference, panels and seminars.
Throughout the conference, participants near and far chatted over IRC, Twittered about memorable moments or useful links and used a dynamic online question tool as a live discussion board during each presentation. Hallmark technologies of “Web 1.0” like IP, IRC, HTTP, WWW and HTML were enhanced by social media from the Web 2.0 world, like blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, microblogging and live videoblogging. Conference participants chatted live there on the IRC channel or in the virtual 3D hall on the Berkman Center’s island in Second Life. Some participants, however, still passed notes.
Berkman at 10 was chronicled using what Professor David Weinberger might term a folksonomy, a user-defined taxonomy for classifying digital content. Participants assigned digital content to the Berkman folksonomy on whatever platform they were publishing to using a #Berkman hashtag or “Berkmanat10” tag or category.
Here are the different aggregations.
- Images tagged with Berkmanat10 on Flickr.
- Blog posts tagged with Berkman on Technorati.
- Berkman-related tweets on Twitter, aggregated on Twemes.com.
- Berkman conferees and fellows on YouTube
- Boston’s own Steve Garfield was the official videographer for the event. Watch all of his Berkman videos at Qik.com. Steve uses a handheld Nokia95 to stream live over a broadband wireless connection.
- For those interested in seeing how Yahoo! Pipes can be put to good use, check out the full feed of the Berkman at 10 proceedings.
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Learn how to add codecs automatically, play video embedded in a browser and how to install a Flash Player plugin or the Miro video platform.
Video: Richard Stallman talks about the importance of free software, GNU, copyleft and open sourcing
In these videos, Robin Good interviews Richard Stallman about free software and the open source movement. Stallman created the GPL and the Free Software Foundation to protect the GNU operating system from becoming proprietary.
In the sequence embedded below, filmed, the founding father of open source software answers a series of questions. This interview was originally posted at MasterNewMedia.org in 2006 and features commentary and links from Robin Good.
Q: What is free software?
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Q: What are the negative consequences of using proprietary software instead of free software?
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Q: What free software do you recommend using?
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Q: Can individuals and organizations use GNU/Linux in their daily operations?
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Q: What can individuals do to support the open source movement?
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In other chapters, Stewart (naturally) plugs his company’s products, along with looking ahead to the long term trends in AML compliance. These videos are from the SAS Financial Services section of SAS.com.
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The application pulls multiple forms of rich media and communication streams into a single dashboard.
The desktops of many office workers these days often contains all of these communications forms already; they’re just not combined into a single, slick interface or administrated by centralized controls. Given the risk that any organization, much less enterprise, takes in allowing employees to install multiple third party applications for IM, VoIP, email, RSS, videoconferencing and web-based widgets for anything and everything else, it’s perhaps not surprising that vendors are stepping in to offer some control to sysadmins.
Learn how to install Ubuntu on a PC that already has Windows installed. After installation, when the PC boots-up, a boot menu allows a user to choose which operating system to run. This is made possible by GNU GRUB (or just GRUB), a boot loader package that supports multiple operating systems on a computer.
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This screencast is from Ubuntu.com and was created by Alan Pope.