Three-dimensional printers aren’t exactly a new technology. “It’s 30 years old,” said Pete Basiliere, a Gartner analyst who’s covered the 3D printing market for years.
The most widespread and time-tested use of 3D printing technology is by manufacturers and product designers for rapid prototyping. “Any company producing a product that designs something physical will most likely have 3D printers. It cuts down the design cycles significantly,” said Shawn DuBravac, chief economist and director of research at Consumer Technology Association, a standards and trade organization for the consumer electronics industry in the US. The iterative process enables companies to tweak designs quickly — and cheaply, directly benefiting the business. “It lowers not only the cost, but the time involved in designing and bringing products to market,” he said.
But here’s where things get tricky: 3D printing technology has been around for three decades, but it’s also acting like a newborn, according to Basiliere. While rapid prototyping is a familiar and well-established use case for the technology, new 3D printing use cases are beginning to emerge. One that’s receiving its fair share of media attention is customization, which is giving rise to handful of small, niche players in certain markets.
Hearing aid manufacturers are using the technology to scan a patient’s ear, create a model and then print a hearing aid shell specifically for a patient — in no time. Invisalign, manufactured by Align Technology, uses 3D printing technology to use a similar process for non-metallic braces, constructing 150,000 dental aligners a day, according to Basiliere. Or consider Sols, a startup that’s combining mobile technology and 3D printing to produce custom shoe inserts. The Sols tagline? “Three photos, ten minutes, two happy feet.”
Interest is growing in location intelligence, but the technology isn’t a priority for most businesses, according to the third annual Location Intelligence Market Study published last month by Dresner Advisory Services LLC. Location intelligence refers to a business intelligence tool that relates geographic information from a variety of data sources, including GIS and aerial maps, to business data.
Respondents to the survey, which included 403 industry representatives from technology to health care to financial services, ranked location intelligence/analytics 12th out of 25 technologies. Respondents pointed to dashboards, data discovery, data mining and integration with operational processes as bigger priorities than location intelligence; they ranked topics such as in-memory analysis, big data, text analytics and the Internet of Things (IoT) as lesser priorities than location intelligence.
The findings don’t surprise Howard Dresner, founder and chief research officer at Dresner Advisory Services. Interest in location intelligence is dependent on the industry. “If you’re doing things like sales operational planning, you have to use location intelligence to do that. Otherwise, you’re not going to understand how to allocate resources appropriately,” he said.
Indeed, when broken down by industry, the survey reveals that retail has the highest interest in location intelligence with 65% of those representing the industry indicating that location intelligence is either critically important or very important to their company. Only 40% of survey takers from health care and 35% of survey takers from education said the same.
Yet Dresner predicts location intelligence will rise in importance across all industries eventually. One driver is Internet of Things (IoT), he said, pointing to the growing network of Wi-Fi enabled physical objects such as Fitbits and connected vehicles. “IoT is about where stuff is, first and foremost,” he said. As the IoT stack continues to mature and as more businesses build IoT pilots, Dresner believes location intelligence will ratchet up the priority list.
While location intelligence might be “kind of a sleeper,” right now, Dresner advised CIOs and senior IT leaders to seize the moment and get in front of the wave of interest. In some cases, businesses will need geocoding skills, converting, say, a street address into spatial data, to attain the level of granularity they’re after — skills that will most likely be housed in a company’s analytics department. In other cases, location intelligence features are baked into the business intelligence software, making it easy for a marketing or sales department to serve themselves.
Regardless, the IT department will have a hand in installing the technology, loading in the data, providing the technology support and training users, Dresner said. “[IT] has a role, unless you buy something that’s a SaaS offering, which makes it more of a managed service,” he said.
How important is it that CIOs report to the CEO? I recently sat in on a CEO-CIO panel discussion that shed light on the benefits and demands that come with this reporting relationship.
The CEO-CIO pairs were presenting at the SIM Boston Technology Leadership Summit. They hail from two very different types of companies. CEO and co-founder Andy Youniss and CIO Jay Leader are from Rocket Software of Waltham, Mass., a 25-year-old global company that builds enterprise software. CEO Martin Borg and James Bowen, CIO/COO, are from Measured Progress Inc., a not-for profit headquartered in Dover, N.H., that sells K-12 educational assessment products and services to clients nationwide.
As noted in my story this week, “The CEO-CIO business partnership in action,” these CEO-CIO teams — despite their different businesses and business models — share certain attributes, including first and foremost a CEO who sees IT as more than just a cost center, and a CIO who can think strategically about the business. The two CIOs work closely with their CEOs. Both make presentations to their boards of directors. Additionally, both CIOs have gradually taken on a more outward-facing role at their companies; each now is being sent out to meet with customers in order to help their respective companies better understand customer needs.
You might be interested in hearing some of what they said during the panel. Here are a handful of observations made by Youniss, Leader, Borg and Bowen about their CEO-CIO relationships, and what the future holds for CIOs. (Quotes have been edited and condensed.)
Business sees IT in different light
CEO Andy Youniss of Rocket: When we first got a CIO we made a decision that the role would report to me; IT was not ever designed to be a cost center; it was designed to be an organization that would create value within the company. …We are a tech company, and we sell our products to CIOs. A decade ago, or a couple decades ago, when I visited CIOs it was more likely than not that I was walking into an organization that was a cost center, and I remember the conversations we were having: “If only the CEO understood what we’re talking about; if only the CEO understood the value of these investments we’re making, but they’re just asking me to cut costs.” Today, when I talk to a CIO, more often than not they actually have a seat at the table, because technology is driving everything.
A couple of decades ago, the technology we were selling was very much supporting systems of record, more transactional things. Now with all the data that those transactions have created, and the new business users, new business models and new systems of engagement coming online, the CIO is able to bring more business value around mobile apps, around systems of engagement and analytics — so we’ve seen the conversation shift as we have talked to our customers, and this is not locally but happening all over the world.
Seat at the table equals CIO success
CIO Jay Leader of Rocket: Part of the reason it is important to be sitting at the table and hearing the conversation is because the words often come out wrong. Andy has heard me say this to him before. I don’t think my job is to do what Andy tells me; I think my job is to do what Andy wants. And because sometimes the words do come out wrong, I try to listen to the message. …
My job is to try to really understand what we’re trying to accomplish. Andy and I have this conversation where we start at, “We should go do this! And then we realize that, well, our objective is really this, so let’s go about it another way.” Sitting at the table allows you to hear the conversation so that if the words are wrong, you can say, That’s not what I heard. I heard that the problem is this, and if the problem is this, then doing that is not going to solve it.
CEO Marty Borg of Measured Progress: It is the CEO’s job, as well as the rest of executive team, to set business direction. I think the CIO’s job is to come in, listen to what that is and then amplify it. By the nature of their position, they are translating business need into possible solutions. And the possible solutions are very deep inside of their discipline. I don’t want to be deciding what kind of array to have in our servers, but I do need to be able to say, “Here’s where we are, here’s where are students are, and here is where our differentiators are.” James is in the room when the direction is set, and that is important, because if you set a direction that is not coordinated with your infrastructure and skill set it is going to be really tough sledding.
CIO of the future
CEO Youniss of Rocket: This is not just because Jay’s sitting next to me, but when we recruited for a CIO we were obviously looking for someone who would be good technically in that role, but mostly we were looking for somebody who would be a good general business person. What I always say to my executive team is “Leave your functional hat at the door when you come in the room;’ when you’re around the executive team table, we are all executive peers and I need everybody’s input and opinion coming from your different perspectives.
So I think the CIO of the future is a really good business mind. That is one of the things I wanted to communicate to you, and the other thing is to be a good change agent, good at change management. As you know it is constantly changing and someone has to be advocating for that change and managing it and quite frankly pushing that change and communicating well around it.
CIO Leader of Rocket: I think my role has evolved a lot over the last 10 years from being master of craft and expert of silo, to a connector and an influencer. We have unique capability in IT in that we have a reason and a contribution to make in most facets of our business from time to time. There are times when we have to spend time in finance and HR or to support manufacturing or testing services. You have to have some flavor of and familiarity with all facets of the company; similarly we don’t have line authority for anything, so I can’t make anyone do anything at Rocket except the people who are in my vertical organization. So for me to be effective I have to be an influencer, and to be an influencer, I have to understand what is important to you and how can I get you to the place that you want to be — by the way that I want to go there.
I have gone from spending maybe 50% of my time looking at internal operation of IT, to spending about 90% of my time looking at internal and now external operations of Rocket. And that’s because that is really what I am paid to do.
CIO/COO James Bowen of Measured Progress: As far as my journey goes, I spent the first year as chief technology officer sorting out all the technology ; my second year as CIO I spent understanding and learning the business and influencing and gaining that trust; and then my third year as COO, is about really helping to grow that business.
The autonomous-car guys at Google have got to love the 2015 cult comedy sequel Hot Tub Time Machine 2. Not because they thought it was a good film — I think they’re probably too smart for that — but because in the sequel, the future is a bright one for driverless cars. In director Steve Pink’s 2025 — the year most of the cast from Hot Tub Time Machine get transported to — cars take directions from people and cart them about, expertly ride through highway curves and stop on a dime. (They also try to run down humans who are rude to them, which may scare people who yell at their laptops.)
As for the real 2025, a lot can happen in nine years — and a lot will have to happen before cars can motor their way out of human control, according to MIT’s John Leonard.
The mechanical engineering professor and artificial intelligence researcher told an audience at the recent Brain + Machines symposium at Harvard University that Tesla Motors founder Elon Musk’s declaration of self-driving cars as “a solved problem” was more than a little optimistic.
“Just very respectfully, I disagree,” Leonard said. “And I think that driving exposes fundamental issues in intelligence, fundamental issues in how the brain works. And we might be a very long way away.”
Though he thinks Google Car is “an amazing project that might one day transform mobility,” the technology today is overhyped and misunderstood.
Bumpy road ahead
Leonard studies simultaneous localization and mapping, or SLAM, a technique for building maps that vehicles use to direct themselves. He led the team behind MIT’s autonomous car in the 2007 DARPA Challenge, a competition for driverless cars held at a former Air Force base in California.
A video taken at the event of a collision between cars from MIT and Cornell University illustrates his point. MIT’s car tried to pass Cornell’s and hit it instead. The problem, Leonard said, was one of spatial reasoning. The computers running the cars, aided by algorithms, were missing the “semantic understanding of the world” that people have.
Leonard discussed other unsolved challenges facing autonomous driving. One involves the human interaction that often enables car travel. He showed a video taken by a camera fixed to his car’s dashboard as he drove in his hometown of Newton, Mass., a Boston suburb. At a busy intersection with no traffic light, making a left turn would have been nearly impossible without waving at an oncoming car to signal his intention.
In another video, a police officer is standing in the street waving people through a red light at an intersection.
“So if anyone here is a programmer, how do you write the code that says, ‘Always stop at red lights, unless there’s a man on the side of the road waving at you’?” Leonard said.
Unexpected changes to things like road surfaces can also throw off automated cars. Google cars, for example, use precise maps that tell them where they are at any given point on a journey. But if Mother Nature drops a foot of snow, or if a road gets repaved, a driverless car may easily get confused, Leonard said.
Then there’s what’s called the “handoff problem.” When a car can’t figure out what to do on the road, how does it get a human to suddenly pay attention and take the wheel?
“Humans are actually pretty bad at that,” Leonard said.
Until cars can be 100% autonomous — which Google is pursuing — Leonard advocates what he calls a “guardian angel system.” In it, a human has to pay attention the entire trip; auto-driving kicks in only when he makes a mistake or when an accident looks likely.
Thinking about thinking
Leonard is looking at neuroscience to help solve the problems driverless cars face — specifically at how the brain of a person or an animal gathers information and creates an inner vision, or “representation,” of where it is in physical space. He is experimenting with visualized maps that can help a robot negotiate its way through a room or the MIT campus — without crashing into a chair or colliding with a moving object, like a car.
“My dream is to achieve persistent autonomy of lifelong map learning. Say, a robot car that, as it drove around Boston, it would get better and better,” Leonard said. “It would learn about the world.”
The problem: Petplan Insurance Agency LLC, a 140-employee company founded in 2003, wanted to offer its customers a more personal and more relevant shopping experience. The pet insurance company, which recently ranked #59 on the Forbes list of America’s Most Promising Companies, was looking to integrate online and offline points of contact with customers for marketing campaigns.
“We have this treasure chest of data, we just really need to find the key and open it up,” said Petplan’s chief digital officer Gerry McGoldrick, who was hired in May to lead digital and mobile initiatives. McGoldrick reports to Natasha Ashton, Petplan co-founder and CMO.
The strategy: McGoldrick set his sights on integrating call center data and online data. “The theory is that anyone who calls probably dealt with us through a digital experience at some point,” he said. Before purchasing a policy, Petplan customers may visit the website as many as four times, often seeking a quote for comparative shopping. With each visit, customers leave behind digital breadcrumbs and, in some cases, valuable data such as the breed and age of the dog or cat they’re looking to insure. To connect the online and offline dots, McGoldrick invested in BlueConic, a marketing platform, with the director of IT’s blessing.
The results: The BlueConic platform enables Petplan to take online data and build customer profiles, which are then served up to call center agents who can use them to tailor conversations. “Someone coming in through search will act differently than someone coming in through an email campaign,” McGoldrick said. And the more personal the conversation can be right off the bat, the better. He described the technology investment as “dipping our toe in the water” of personalization and hopes the platform will eventually incorporate data from its internal CRM and CMS for marketing use cases and beyond.
High-profile cyberextortions like the Sony Pictures Entertainment hack in 2014, the one last year on infidelity dating site Ashley Madison and even a lesser-known hack on InvestBank in the United Arab Emirates must have spooked a lot of people.
According to a study released in January by Cloud Security Alliance and security software vendor Skyhigh Networks, 25% of organizations said they’d be willing to pay a ransom to hackers to stop the release of sensitive information, and 14% would pay more than $1 million.
“To me that is disheartening, and it does tell us that both we’re not doing a good enough job in the industry protecting information,” said Jim Reavis, co-founder and CEO of Cloud Security Alliance, “and also that our use of technology is so vast that there are so many threats out there.”
And they keep happening. The Boston Globe reported just this week that the town of Medfield, Mass., paid a ransom after “ransomware” — a virus that locks a computer or device and demands the user pay a cash sum — shut down its computer network for about a week.
I wrote last week about the “culture of security” at Equinix, a Silicon Valley provider of data center space. CIO Brian Lillie described it as a companywide awareness about threats to information security – achieved through relationship building and support from top execs down — combined with an array of technological tools and a CISO to make sure all departments check out.
Now is the time for more companies to take Equinix’s lead. Traditional security practices like doing backups and tools such as intrusion detection software and antimalware are all compulsory to maintaining a strong security posture, but the fact that organizations are willing to give in to hackers’ cash demands — and in practice do — is testament that more is needed.
The human element in information security often gets short shrift. For example, many still believe that training programs don’t work and aren’t worth spending time and money on. But the best security defenses in the world won’t be successful if even one employee doesn’t know a phishing email when he sees one. And today, it’s easy for business departments to order a cloud service or download an app to a corporate smartphone. People who don’t know what’s kosher and what isn’t are practically courting disaster.
Everyone — from chief executives to business departments to the newest of hires — needs to be keenly aware of the threats out there, how to prevent them and how to counter them if they do occur. The more an organization can instill its people with a security mind-set, the more it can bolster its defenses against an increasingly bold and innovative underground.
It’s easy to resort to labels when talking about the CIO position: strategic CIOs versus operational CIOs, the digital visionaries versus the keep-the-lights-on types, team players versus the so-called rock stars. A recent survey from Deloitte’s CIO Program adds to the litany. Based on the responses of 1,271 CIOs and senior tech leaders from 43 countries, Deloitte uncovered three categories of CIOs:
- Trusted operator
- Change instigator
- Business co-creator
Unlike other expert commentary that suggests one type of CIO position is better than another, however, the Deloitte study doesn’t choose sides. Instead, it makes the welcome observation that the CIO role will and should vary from business to business — and even in the same business, change over time.
“There is no judgment around one versus the other. The best category is the one that is matched to what your organization needs in the moment,” Karen Mazer, U.S. CIO program lead at Deloitte Consulting LLP, said in a webinar reviewing the survey findings.
If the business is in cost-containment or reduction mode, it likely needs a trusted operator in the CIO position. A business trying to set a vision for the future and leverage cutting edge technologies to do that, needs a change instigator. A rapidly expanding company deciding on the long-term tech investments required to accommodate growth, probably needs a CIO who is a business co-creator.
Rather than fret about which category they fit in, Mazer suggested CIOs first answer these questions:
- What CIO pattern do you identify with and are you aligned with the business needs of today?
- What does the business need to be doing? Should it be looking more to the future, and how are you preparing yourself for where the business needs to go? Do you have the skills and confidence to drive the organization forward?
While Deloitte does not pass judgment on the roles that define the CIO position, survey respondents had definite ideas about which type of CIO they aspired to be.
Over half the survey takers who identified as trusted operators or change instigators said they would like to be business co-creators. Mazer said it is important for those types of IT leaders to identify the reason their CIO positions are not aligned with their personal aspirations. Is it because they’re not where their organization is, or is it because they lack the CIO skills required to be in that category?
“The best CIOs can adapt to the needs of the environment they operate in and change with the times,” Mazer said.
For detailed descriptions of the three CIO categories, go to part two of this post, “CIO report: Three CIO archetypes and how each delivers IT value.”
Based on the responses of 1,271 CIOs and senior tech leaders in its recent global survey, Deloitte identified three CIO personas: the trusted operator, the change instigator and the business co-creator.
The first part of this two-part post, “Defining the CIO position: Don’t box yourself in,” explained that Deloitte’s study doesn’t claim that one persona is better than another. Rather it argues that the mode of delivering IT value should ideally match the business’ needs at the moment. Misalignment — whether because IT fails to operate at the level the business needs, or because the business is simply not prepared to follow IT’s vision — is not good.
“CIOs who can adapt and adapt quickly to changing business needs are the ones we think are going to are going to go a long way in driving very significant value for their organizations,” said Khalid Kark, director at Deloitte Consulting LLP and a principal author of the CIO report.
This post provides a rundown of the three CIO archetypes Deloitte derived from the survey responses, as well as the top business priorities, leadership traits, relationships, and technology investments associated with each.
Trusted operators deliver IT excellence by focusing on cost, operational efficiency and performance reliability. They provide enabling technologies, they support business transformation efforts and align IT strategy to business strategy. This category comprises the largest percentage of survey takers: 42%.
Business priorities: Of the five business priorities cited by all the CIOs taking the survey — performance, cost, customers, innovation and growth — survey respondents identified as trusted operators singled out cost and performance as their top two.
Leadership: CIOs in this category rarely lead business innovation, nor do they spearhead growth efforts. “Technology operations,” “execution” and “communication” as their top leadership talents.
Relationships and influence: Trusted operators typically report to the CFO and they actively engage with their IT workforce.
Tech investments: Digital technology will have the most impact on their businesses in the next two years, followed by analytics and cloud.
Change instigators lead transformation efforts and act as the change agent within the organization, according to Deloitte’s CIO report. This category represented the smallest number of CIOs taking the survey.
Business priorities: Customers and innovation are the top business priorities for change instigators. These CIOs are often brought in to change the status quo and look outside the enterprise for ideas.
Leadership: Change instigators see “communication” and “understanding” as their top two leadership strengths.
Tech investments: Change instigators see analytics as the technology that will have the biggest impact on their organizations over the next two years.
The primary aim of business co-creators is to support and drive business strategy. This group accounted for about one-third of the survey respondents.
Business priorities: Business co-creators rank all five business priorities almost equally, striving to balance performance and cost goals with customer, innovation and growth goals.
Leadership: They see “communication” and the “ability to influence internal stakeholders” as their top two leadership skills.
Brian Lillie, CIO at data center builder Equinix, a company where security is “embedded in everything we do,” said that doling out general advice for bolstering IT security in the cloud computing era is difficult because all organizations are different. But there are guidelines they can follow to take advantage of the lower costs, faster setup and better user experience cloud systems offer — and maintain solid cyberdefense. Here are his three tips for better cloud security:
- Have a cloud-first strategy. To Lillie, cloud today means cloud-first. “If you can solve a business problem in the cloud, do it,” he said. “Because that is where all of the investment is going. It’s where most of the [vendor] innovation is happening and more and more and more, their solutions are going to be in the cloud.”
- Accept the reality of hybrid IT. Most companies won’t be 100% in the cloud, Lillie said. Some applications, for example, will have to purpose-built, and those will most likely have to stay on premises — so will highly sensitive applications and ones that are “too core to IT.” So hybrid IT — or an integrated mix of on-premises and cloud systems — should be the aim.
- Wrap it all in security. Organizations can’t stop at defending their data centers. As they look more to cloud applications, they need security policies, processes and tools to safeguard those as well. “You’ve got to make sure your data is safe in transit,” Lillie said. “You’ve got to make sure that your integration strategy between your on-premises and your cloud is not only secure but high-performing.” And no one technology does everything, he said. His team has around 25 security tools to keep Equinix’s cloud applications safe, including gatekeeper software called a cloud access security broker, federated identity management for ensuring users are who they say they are, and a Web application security scanner to detect weaknesses in applications. “I actually think that a set of tools layered is the best defense,” Lillie said.
Figuring out who to hire and what to pay for IT job skills has never been a cut-and-dried affair. Even when IT salaries are relatively stagnant, as they have been in recent years, demand for certain IT job skills — and therefore the premiums paid for those skills — can change in a matter of a mere three months, a phenomenon David Foote understands well. Foote Partners LLC advisory and research firm, founded in 1997, tracks pay for 835 IT skills every 90 days.
“The truth is that there are so many skills that employers find worthy of extra pay, and for these skills either certifications don’t exist or the ones that do are perceived as too easy to attain,” Foote said in the firm’s latest release on IT job skills pay from Oct. 1, 2015 to Jan. 1, 2016. “Besides, employers have always had their own ways to evaluate and accredit skills expertise. They are comfortable using their own methods to qualify the strength and value of skills and how they factor into their workers’ capabilities on the job.”
In rapidly changing business climates — as is the case in today’s massive shift to digital business — premium pay for IT jobs skills is particularly volatile, Foote explained in a phone call following up on the report. A good example is what has happened to compensation for big data skills over the past two years. For all the media buzz about the importance of advanced analytics in gaining a foothold in the digital marketplace, pay premiums for 58 big data-related skills and certifications declined an average 4.7% in the last nine months of 2014.
“Companies started going into big data, hiring people out of Google, out of big tech firms — and then found nothing was happening. ‘We’re putting money into this,’ they told us, ‘and we’re not getting any results,'” Foote said.
Big data pay on rebound
Doing big data is about data sharing and transparency and breaking down business silos, Foote said, something many hierarchal companies find difficult to do. Another reason for the pullback in big data pay? An institutional reluctance to embrace data-driven decision management. “These companies want to build a new business model to compete in a digital era — and then find that their culture just completely gets in the way of doing it,” he said.
But as companies have found their “sweet spots” in big data, discovering what they can and can’t do, compensation for big data skills has rallied, rising nearly 6% in market value overall in 2015 and predicted to increase over the next 12 to 24 months.
“Big data capabilities are just too critical for staying competitive. They’ve expanded in popularity from a few industries to nearly every industry and market,” he said. The growth of Internet of Things (with predicted compound annual growth rate of 30 % over the next five years) — and the pressure to turn IoT data into actionable business intelligence — will further spur pay for big data related skills, he said.
Here are some other findings on IT job skills from Foote Partners’ latest research:
DevOps gets “serious traction:” Acceptance of DevOps methodology is growing. The latest premium pay data for 2,745 employers tracked by Foote Partners shows a 7.12% gain in average market value for DevOps skills in the past six months.
Cloud skills demand strong, but pay eroding: Talent supply for cloud skills is catching up with demand, resulting in a modest 1% gain in average value in 2015 for 73 cloud-related certified and noncertified skills.
Security skills gap deepens: Market values for the 76 information security certifications tracked by Foote Partners have increased an average 9.7% over the past two years. The report states: “The bad news is that while cybercriminals and hacktivists are increasing in numbers and deepening their skill sets, the ‘good guys’ are struggling to keep pace. … CISOs will have to become more aggressive about getting the skill sets the organization needs, plus [they] will need to build sustainable recruiting practices and develop and retain existing talent to improve their organizations’ cyber resilience.”
Read more about Foote Partners’ latest findings in, “Digital business disruption roils the manufacturing sector.”