The advent of driverless vehicles — accompanied by the end of private car ownership by 2025 — represents the future of transportation, according to ridesharing pioneer Lyft. Pie-in -the-sky predictions? The ridesharing movement has already made its mark as an industry disruptor, eating into the taxi industry and supplementing public transportation. As driverless vehicles from the likes of Lyft and Uber and others make their ways onto our roadways, industry experts have no doubt this technology advance will have a tremendous impact on the automotive business.
But how exactly Lyft will make the transition to this new future — and do it without cannibalizing its current business — was debated at a recent event at Northeastern University in Boston, Mass., featuring Lyft CTO Chris Lambert.
Speaking to an audience of students, Lambert detailed the current state of transportation in America, giving his take on the bold prediction made last month by Lyft Co-Founder, John Zimmer, on Sept. 18. On the future of transportation: Namely, that within five years the majority of Lyft rides will be by autonomous vehicles and by 2025 private ownership will all but end in major U.S. cities.
Lambert referred to this future as the “the third transportation revolution,” or, “the point where transportation as a service becomes more enjoyable and affordable.”
Students took a more granular view of this future. They peppered Lambert with multiple versions of the same question: How will Lyft differentiate itself from competitors once human drivers are no longer necessary?
One of Lyft’s core values since its inception has been its self-proclaimed unique driver-rider experience. Riders are encouraged to sit up-front and strike up a conversation with their driver, as if chatting with a friend. If cars become driverless, what will differentiate Lyft from any other driverless vehicle out there?
“The differentiation lies within the experience. The opportunity moves away from just getting from A to B to getting from A to B in the most productive and enjoyable way available,” Lambert said. In the future, riders could have the possibility of selecting different vehicles for different experiences: dining cars, social cars or gaming cars, he said.
Three phases to the future of transportation
In any case, drivers will still play a large role in Lyft’s business model for the next decade, Lambert said. Phase one, with human drivers, is currently underway. Five years from now is phase two, a “hybrid” system with autonomous vehicles manned by human drivers that can aid the cars if certain routes are unable to be performed by the car alone. In 10 years, we can expect “fully autonomous” Lyft vehicles, Lambert said, but even then human drivers won’t be entirely out of the picture.
“Depending on where you’re going or coming from, that route may be eligible to be dispatched with an autonomous vehicle or it might need a human driver.” Some routes may still be too challenging or even impossible for fully autonomous vehicles to drive on.
Driverless cars and the environment
Transportation is currently the second-highest household expense in America, according to Lambert, and the average vehicle remains parked 96% of the time. Lambert said autonomous vehicles will be hailed from a central fleet and alleviate parking space congestion along streets. Lambert said the 700 million parking spots in America are enough to pave Connecticut, accounting for a tremendous amount of, “unused space” that could be replaced with parks and additional housing.
Lyft has other plans to reduce the number of cars on the road: The company will start a subscription model in the future, where instead of paying per ride users will purchase a yearly subscription. This will save consumers money by helping them avoid buying a new car every few years and spending even more on its maintenance and upkeep, Lambert said.
Lyft, valued last year at around $5 billion, often operates in the shadow of its competitor, the rideshare giant Uber, but Lambert said that Lyft has solidified its position in the ridesharing market after receiving a $500 million investment from General Motors (GM) to spearhead the development of the autonomous technology. GM is primarily responsible for the research and development of Lyft’s fleet of autonomous vehicles, whereas Lyft itself is responsible for the software side.
Lambert admitted that a big obstacle to the future of transportation and the autonomous car trend will be convincing consumers to give up driving. When asked what companies he considered to be Lyft’s competitors, Lambert said it was “behavior change.”
“It’s going to take a lot of investment and awareness to have consumers give up their cars,” Lambert said.
When Apple introduced the iPhone 7 last week, with no headphone jack, and its wireless earbuds, it was sketching out a future in which devices connect – to other devices, to the internet, to people — without cords. And though consumers were the target of the San Francisco event, it was the future of mobile devices in business that was on my mind.
I asked Christopher Voce, an analyst at Forrester Research, about the mobile future. What would the corporate world use mobile devices for five, 10, 15 years from now? Much, he said.
Today workers use smartphones and tablets primarily for viewing information, Voce said — reading the news, say, or shopping — and for communicating with friends and co-workers. In the future, they will use mobile devices more for “transactions.”
These tasks that can take multiple forms, Voce said, “whether that be an insurance adjuster on-site taking pictures or assessing an accident or a doctor with a patient or a field worker working in the energy industry taking readings.”
Certainly, some of that work is already happening on mobile devices, but Voce said Forrester surveys have shown that some worker roles, like engineers and designers, have been “underserved with regard to mobile,” — that is, they’re looking for mobile tools they might need to be more productive. Examples include computer-aided design systems or mobile software that lets them collect specs or show demos to customers. “That’s the next frontier for enterprises,” he said.
Apple’s mobile future
And while companies develop new business uses for mobile devices, Apple will most likely continue doing what it does, which is appealing to consumers.
“Talking about consumer versus enterprise with Apple can be a distraction,” Voce said. “They focus on the individual, primarily the consumer, but also somebody who goes to work — and the more that they can appeal to a person [who will] use a device at home and the office, that just helps them grow and sell their devices.”
It’s not certain yet whether the iPhone 7 will continue that tradition. Taking away the device’s headphone jack drew no shortage of social media jeers, as did the new earbuds, the $159 Airpods. Seeming to confirm the lackluster response was a poll by market researcher Morning Consult: 68% of people who’ve heard of the device weren’t planning to buy it.
But the more powerful, water- and dust-resistant new release was met with a number of positive industry reviews, and Apple’s early supply of the new phones sold out fast, pushing back delivery of some models to November. Appealing to the masses could be working — albeit in mysterious ways.
Irwin Lazar, an analyst at Nemertes Research, said Apple’s role in a mobile business future will likely be one built on partnerships with other big tech companies. For example, there’s a much vaunted partnership with IBM that has churned out more than 100 mobile apps for industries such as retail, financial services, travel, healthcare and energy. And another with SAP, on apps that will mesh with the German company’s back-office systems. Cisco and eye-care company Bausch & Lomb are on the list, too.
“Most enterprises won’t be dealing directly with Apple,” Lazar said. Instead, they’ll look at “how the enterprises they work with today — SAP, Cisco, Microsoft, et cetera — at how well those guys play with Apple.”
How do Apple’s recent iPhone and Apple Watch rollouts affect CIOs? Read about it in this SearchCIO column.
What do smart city initiatives look like? Turning streetlamps on and off with Wi-Fi? Analyzing reams of traffic data to reroute how cars flow through city streets? Using video sensors to watch for crime?
Bring up the concept of using technology to improve city services with Bill Oates, and you’ll talk about connecting with citizens — all of them, including people with disabilities.
“Everybody means everybody,” said Oates, vice president and general manager of Perkins Solutions, the technology division of Perkins School for the Blind. “That means you need to think about how, as you become a smarter city, are you engaging folks that have to engage in different ways?”
Staying in touch
Making connections is a huge part of Oates’ job. Perkins Solutions ships Braille writers and other technologies to 170 countries and is now exploring how new technologies can help people who are blind or visually impaired. He and his team do that by working closely with teachers and students on Perkins’ campus, in Watertown, Mass.
Later this month, Perkins will release a mobile app that helps people with vision loss navigate to within a few feet of a bus stop. The project was sparked by a Perkins employee who is blind and had trouble pinpointing the exact locations of bus stops.
Oates is a longtime CIO, having led IT in Massachusetts’ state government and Boston’s city government — and the idea of technology improving how states and cities could reach out to their constituents was never far from his mind. When he worked for the city, he implemented Citizens Connect, a mobile app that lets residents report issues like a street light being out or garbage not being picked up. The program gained nationwide attention and became the model for similar projects in other cities.
Smarter cities, smarter states
The Perkins app, Oates said, shows that technology can be harnessed and put to use for people with specific needs — and he hopes cities and states looking to get started on smart city initiatives will take notice.
Boston and the Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority, which runs the Boston area’s buses, subways and trolleys, have been working with Perkins on the mobile app. A partnership with another city could explore using other technologies — beacons, for example, which broadcast signals — to increase location accuracy, Oates said. A second-generation mobile app could be used to find not just bus stops but train stations or other city landmarks.
Luiza Aguiar, director of products at Perkins Solutions, said the search is on for “smart city CIOs who are looking for innovation.”
The exploration won’t stop there, Oates said. Perkins has bigger aspirations yet, looking to state governments and even other countries to experiment with ever-newer technology — say, connected cars — and help make them more accessible to people who are blind or visually impaired.
“This app is just a first step for us, but we think it’s a really great place for us to be,” Oates said, “and hopefully gives us a chance to tell this story and make sure that it does get amplified.”
Read about the process that kick-started the Perkins bus stop app.
Talk of the demise of the chief digital officer role — an executive position designed to help companies drive digital strategy — is surfacing. And not just in media reports. Ask chief digital officers what their ultimate goal is, and you’ll likely hear it’s to put themselves out of a job. That’s because once digital strategy becomes the business strategy, a chief digital cheerleader is no longer necessary.
Regardless of the CDO’s fate, digital initiatives will remain important to the business, said Anna Frazzetto, chief digital technology officer — that’s CDTO — at IT recruiting company Harvey Nash. And, so, while CDOs might not be called CDOs for long, the digital agenda they’ve championed won’t disappear. That’s good news for CIOs who haven’t shied away from the digital business bandwagon and not so good news for CIOs who have. Because here’s how Frazzetto sees the role evolving: “I think there’s going to be a melding of the CIO role and the CDO role,” she said. “It’s going to be called something else, but the underlying current is going to be the digital officer aspect of it.”
Frazzetto, whom I met at last May’s CDO Summit, speaks from personal experience. In her role as CDTO at Harvey Nash, Frazzetto weighs in on internal technology planning, but she also works with customers to help them build a digital strategy. Her current position underscores both her technology experience (she got her start at IBM as a systems engineer) and her communication skills (at a mentor’s behest, she pursued roles on the business side of the house).
The techno-biz blend of skills isn’t unheard of for CDOs. David Yakir, one of the first digital officers, was both a CTO and a CEO before becoming Young & Rubicam Group’s CDO in 2003. And, so, while Frazzetto’s title as a CDTO is unique, her range of experience as a digital officer isn’t. If Frazzetto is right and businesses decide to merge the CDO and CIO positions, chief information officers who aren’t working collaboratively with the business may have a tough time competing for the newly hatched role.
It’s those CIOs’ own doing, she argues. If they’d kept pace with the business, transforming the role as necessary, the CDO position wouldn’t exist. “It’s kind of like UPS and FedEx. They came into existence because the postal system didn’t think about having next-day delivery,” she said.
Talking SMAC, an acronym for social, mobile, analytics and cloud, is so yesterday. Instead, if CIOs want to be fashion forward — technologically speaking — they should start talking artificial intelligence, machine learning and software-defined security, an approach that relies on software rather than hardware to enforce security policies regardless of the user’s — or the application’s — location.
Technologies like these are broadly featured in Gartner’s new “Hype Cycle” report on emerging tech trends. They keep company with the likes of quantum computing, which leverages quantum mechanics to produce a big computational boost, and with the science-fiction sounding smart dust, micro-electromechanical systems that can detect environmental factors like temperature. Far out? Not as far out as one might think, said Gartner analyst Betsy Burton, one of the report’s authors, in a recent webinar. She described the technologies as the foundation of digital business 2.0, building on the big data/cloud/mobile framework and striving to make the line between the digital and physical worlds practically indistinguishable.
“Digital business technologies are moving beyond the initial hype,” Burton said, referring to technologies like wearables, blockchain, 3D printing and the Internet of Things. “And we’re starting to see new disciplines and innovations when it comes to how to support digital business in a more effective way.” She pointed to artificial intelligence a la smart applications, conversational interfaces and virtual personal assistants as an example of a class of technologies that will push the digital business envelope.
Burton and fellow analyst Mike Walker, a co-author of the report, framed the emerging tech hype cycle in IT terms, pointing to three “macro” trends.
- First, CIOs and IT leaders will need to help create more dynamic, seamless experiences for customers (by way of augmented or virtual reality, for example). “It’s about how technologies are blending into our environment,” Walker said.
- Second, experience is only half of the equation; the other half is intelligence, he said. Embedded algorithms and more advanced analytics can deliver the right kind of experience at the right time. “Context is king,” he said.
- Third, the platform is the bridge between human and technology. Platforms will not only enable new business models, but will help companies scale digital business up and out, what Burton described as “the next big challenge for organizations.”
For the uninitiated, Gartner hype cycles track the maturation of a wide swath of technologies from market noise to mainstream adoption. For this year’s emerging tech hype cycle, the consultancy looked at more than 2,000 technologies and pinpointed the 30-plus it believes CIOs and IT leaders should familiarize themselves with to help build out their IT roadmap.
“It’s important to understand that the timeline we’re looking at here is between a five- and 10-year horizon,” Walker said. In other words, the technologies featured in this report aren’t necessarily ripe for implementation (brain-computer interface, anyone?) but instead house the potential for a company’s next competitive advantage — at least in Gartner’s eyes.
Robotic process automation software is having a moment, this despite there being a good deal of confusion about what the term refers to.
The robotic process automation (RPA) that’s hot today does not refer to the industrial robots that automated manufacturing plants. It’s also different from cognitive robotic process automation — technologies using so-called neural networks like those that animate IBM Watson and Google Deep Mind, which depend upon very large data sets to mimic human decision making.
The robotic process automation that’s getting a lot of buzz today refers to software that can help automate mainly back office work that is rules-driven, repetitive and involves overlapping systems: think tasks that search, gather, collate and update data.
“It’s what they call ‘swivel chair’ work — clicking on multiple systems, getting data from one source and putting it into another, where people are actually stuck four or five hours a day just doing this boring, manual nonsense,” said Allan Surtees, head of IT at Gazprom Energy in Manchester, U.K., a gas and electricity supplier to businesses in the U.K., France and the Netherlands.
Surtees began working with RPA software developed by Blue Prism more than five years ago at his previous job with Q2 UK, a Telefonica company, so when he joined Gazprom in 2014, he was primed. During his first three months there, as he talked with business partners about the IT function, homing in on problems they needed solved, he also met with users.
“I observed straightaway that a lot of them were doing work … with data that gets manually copied and pasted from one system to another. I saw immediately there was an opportunity for RPA,” he said, adding that RPA at Gazprom is not about eliminating jobs. His first project involves a “very simple process” that automates how meter readings are verified, freeing up the employee tasked with that chore for work that will bring in revenue, he said.
RPA best practices still ‘in infancy’
Surtees’ approach to RPA — talking to the business, observing manual work and targeting processes, or parts of processes where automation adds value — is essential for RPA success and not easy to do. Matching RPA to the right process is “still an art form,” said Craig LeClair, principal analyst at Forrester Research, specializing in enterprise architecture.
Indeed, best practices for RPA are still in their infancy, LeClair said. The result is that RPA projects are being implemented without a solid framework that covers change management, identifies gaps in the process that affect compliance, supports customer experience and prepares for cognitive RPA.
Here are a few of his guidelines highlighted in a Forrester report on RPA best practices published in May.
Identify data entry and review tasks that cross multiple systems. LeClair cites a mortgage origination process that involved three separate employee groups interacting with and requiring training on 15 systems. The implementation of RPA robots, which review captured data, eliminated one entire group and cut down the systems employees needed to be trained on to only seven.
Be prepared to dive into process minutia. Programming a software robot requires knowing exactly where to grab a particular field on a screen and which events will trigger an action. Plus, if a screen changes orientation or a user skips a field, it will throw off the bot.
Design RPA processes with expert employees who know the steps better than anyone. One caveat: When it comes to testing RPA, it may be better to use “the worst and dullest” rather than the process experts, as the experts are the most likely to be offended by the automation of tasks they have mastered to perfection.
Keep compliance and legal teams in the loop. RPA is good at generating reports needed for compliance, and combined with analytics, RPA can cut down on compliance reporting. But using bots to perform human work also introduces a new category of risk.
Cloud service agreements — which spell out the obligations and responsibilities a cloud provider and a customer must adhere to — are documents organizations with IT operations in the public cloud are familiar with. They’re also most likely familiar with terms that don’t necessarily match the commitments to performance and security they require. And with contractual language that changes with the cloud provider.
Still, organizations that want the cost-savings and flexibility that cloud computing promises have little choice. There are still few official cloud standards governing the industry, so cloud contracts from different providers are difficult to compare side by side – and they can be riddled with pitfalls for uninformed customers.
That’s all due to change, albeit gradually, according to the Cloud Standards Customer Council. The user advocacy group gave a live webinar Thursday presenting its updated guide “Public Cloud Service Agreements: What to Expect and What to Negotiate Version 2.0.”
One of the speakers in the webinar, John Bruylant, founder of cloud services broker TheCloudTurbo, said there are a number of cloud industry developments regarding cloud service agreements, including the International Organization for Standardization’s ISO 19086 and the Slalom project. Both aim at standardizing language used in cloud service contracts, terms of the agreements and the metrics cloud providers use to track services.
Another speaker, Mike Edwards, who works on cloud standards at IBM, said the portion of ISO 19086 laying out terminology standards on commitments to customers made by cloud service providers will be released in the next two months.
“Hopefully, that will help bring some consistency to different cloud service agreements and make it easier for customers to understand what they’re getting,” Edwards said.
The Cloud Standards Customer Council’s Claude Baudoin presents a list of pointers on understanding and evaluating cloud service agreements in this SearchCIO tip.
Fortunately, organizations today aren’t using those technologies for mobile devices, he said.
“The good thing is that most enterprises started off with mobility as a brand-new thing,” said Zumerle, co-author of the updated report “How Digital Business Reshapes Mobile Security.” So they bought new mobile security systems to manage and secure their employees’ devices.
The most common one organizations use today to enforce mobile security policies is enterprise mobility management (EMM), which monitors mobile devices and controls employee access to applications. Zumerle said the vast majority of Gartner client organizations use an EMM tool.
A minority of organizations, “for a number of internal reasons — usability, technical reasons — do not want to manage devices,” Zumerle said. “It’s a slightly different approach. Instead of trusting the device, they are trusting parts of the architecture.”
Organizations that choose to “unmanage” devices may pack their email contacts, calendars and business applications into a mobile container and “make sure that container stays safe from any sorts of attacks.”
The personal applications employees use would be outside the container; the advantage is they are isolated from the company-sanctioned business apps, Zumerle said.
Or organizations can set up an enterprise app store. There, employees can browse and download approved applications. Some basic detection programs would be run on the devices workers download apps to — to check whether the devices were “jailbroken,” or had software restrictions removed, or otherwise compromised.
“You would have those sorts of things, but you wouldn’t impose a device-wide enterprise policy,” Zumerle said.
Just the basics
A third category of organizations don’t have proper mobile security systems — but they do impose the most basic security on devices used by their workers. They may use Exchange ActiveSync, a Microsoft protocol that lets users access email and contacts from their employer’s Exchange server. It can be used to impose security on mobile devices, but it’s bare-bones.
“You basically can force a very basic policy onto the device in terms of passcodes encryption and so on,” Zumerle said. “There’s a portion of the industry right now that are still at that stage, where they’re using that basic protocol for some basic management of the device.”
It happened at the end of a panel discussion on how the digitization of work (of the world!) is changing the CIO profession, and it was over in a flash. But the reaction — a burst of applause — to a question fielded by veteran IT executive Stephen Gold reflected the pressure CIOs are feeling about their jobs.
Gold is CIO at CVS Health, the $180 billion corner drugstore chain turned pharmacy innovation company, as it calls itself. Over the past four years the Woonsocket, R.I. health care provider has relentlessly pursued a “customer centric” digital strategy, Gold told the audience at this year’s MIT Sloan CIO Symposium.
The overhaul began with creating a “consistent digital image” for the customers and patients of its lines of business — CVS Pharmacy, CVS Specialty, the MinuteClinic, Caremark — each of which had its own website, mobile applications and development team. But that was just the “tip of the iceberg,” Gold said. The adaptation of legacy IT systems to a digital marketplace at a company the size of CVS is such an enormous task. Indeed, the quest gave rise to the hiring in 2013 of a chief digital officer (CDO), Brian Tilzer, and in 2015 the formation of a digital innovation lab in Boston.
“You read the press — there is talk about the demise of the CIO, the rise of the CDO, but I don’t see it that way. I don’t see it as a threat,” he said of CDO hire, noting that he strategizes with Tilzer all the time. “I view it as an opportunity. I was exchanging emails with him at 6 o’clock this morning on a trip we’re taking to San Francisco.”
Here was a CIO confident enough to voice what others in the room must have been thinking when they heard chief digital officer.
Training for the CIO profession
The MIT panel included JetBlue Airway’s CIO Eash Sundaram and chief commercial officer Marty St. George. Shawn Banerji, managing director of the technology division at executive search firm Russell Reynolds, moderated the panel, which focused on how CIOs are adapting their organizations for digital times. Sundaram, for example, serves as chair of JetBlue’s new venture capital arm in Silicon Valley, which seeks out startup technology — personalization, geolocation, virtual reality — that can be used to enhance the travel experience.
At the end of the session, Gold took a question from an audience member who identified himself as a former CIO and professor in the business school at Northeastern University. What should the IT curriculum cover to prepare a new generation for the rigors of the CIO profession? Should we be training students in computer science or be teaching something else? “It sounds like the traditional MIS curriculum doesn’t fit anymore,” the professor said.
“In my opinion, I would say it is an and, not an or. I still believe the chief information officer has to be a computer scientist or has to be an electrical engineer,” Gold began. “You wouldn’t have a chief medical officer that was not an MD,” he added, his voice rising, “you wouldn’t have a chief accounting officer that’s not a CPA.” That’s when the applause broke out, first a single hard clap then a burst of applause and an affirmative shout out from the crowd — hear, hear!
It’s not that CIOs need to write code, Gold said, although he still can, he noted.
“But you have to understand the architecture of how these systems get built and maintained,” Gold said. “You have to continue to teach the fundamentals and on top of that teach them what it means to be a business-focused CIO.”
“Our philosophy is we are a customer service company that happens to fly planes,” Eash Sundaram, CIO and executive vice president of innovation at JetBlue Airways, told a lunchroom of CIOs at this year’s MIT Sloan CIO Symposium. “Technology is the backbone of our customer service.”
Many companies like to tout customer service as the key to their success. And many companies, no matter the industry sector, view technology as core to the quality of their customer service. How else could they sell to a digital customer if technology, specifically information technology, were not a pillar of their business models?
So perhaps it shouldn’t be surprising that the JetBlue CIO, in addition to his IT and innovation roles, is also chair of JetBlue Technology Ventures, the airline’s Silicon Valley venture capital arm, which seeks out technology startups that enhance customer experience.
But the career twist — CIO as venture capital investor — was a new one on me in what may be the fastest-evolving role in the C-suite. And it apparently sounded novel enough to the CIOs and other IT corporate types sitting near me: We perked up when Sundaram, on a panel about the CIO role in digital transformation, started talking about the venture investment firm, formed in February and located 2,931 miles west of the airline’s Long Island headquarters in Redwood City, Calif.
“We have a small team out there with its own funding and a president who reports to me,” Sundaram said, referring to the multitalented Bonny Simi, pilot, three-time Olympian and Stanford grad.
JetBlue’s investment aim is to find and develop businesses that “sit at the intersection of technology, travel and hospitality,” in particular, early-stage startups specializing in personalization, geolocation, messaging, and virtual reality and other new technologies that bridge and enhance a JetBlue customer’s digital and physical travel experience.
“It’s a nice model for us to bring innovation back to the mother ship. In some cases, the investments we are making will be consumer products on Day 1, and in some cases five to 10 years out. We think this is going to be an important vehicle for expanding what Jet Blue does,” Sundaram said.
JetBlue CIO and digital transformation
While CIO-as-venture-capital-investor might be a rarity, Sundaram is representative of the latest iteration of the CIO role, said Shawn Banerji, managing director of the technology division at executive search firm Russell Reynolds and the moderator of the MIT Sloan CIO panel.
Five years ago, with the advent of cloud, most companies in search of top-notch IT talent put a premium on the “operational CIO,” Banerji said — someone who could build a robust, secure, scalable, functional utility across the enterprise.
“That’s a tough job. It requires great business aptitude; it takes relationship skills, great program project management skills, people leadership — all those sorts of things,” he said. About two years ago, CIO search criteria started to change.
“We saw the adaption of the role into the transformational CIO as businesses wanted to change from legacy ways of doing things into a more digital way of interacting with customers. They expected the CIO to adapt and play that role in that transformation,” Banerji said.
The technical aptitude and business skills required for this role are not exactly aligned with those required of the operational CIO, he added. Transformational CIOs like Sundaram, in addition to building robust IT operations for a digital customer, are also driving new products — and making money for their companies.
Many of those sought-after operational CIOs, while superb at their jobs, do not have the capabilities to become digital leaders. “It’s a different kind of profile,” Banerji said.