Storage Soup

A SearchStorage.com blog.


October 10, 2007  2:59 PM

Rivals eyeing EMC for VMware?



Posted by: Beth Pariseau
Strategic storage vendors

The “Somebody’s gonna buy EMC!” talk is rearing its head again recently in the marketplace. This is a perennial conversation. In fact, we already covered it…two years ago.

This time, though, there’s a new wrinkle, highlighted in this very interesting post by a financial blogger at Barron’s. (Never thought I’d use the words “interesting” and “financial” in the same sentence!)

VMware.

The picture painted by the Barron’s blogger is one in which the cart is running away with the horse–EMC’s “subsidiary” is now valued at almost the same level as EMC itself, and its stock is trading at 5 times the price of EMC’s (which only recently broke the $20 threshold). The suggestion is also that prospective buyers might be looking at the subsidiary, not the core company–VMware is literally changing the world right now, and EMC continues to be distracted by integrating its many, many acquisitions.

Then again, what kind of valuation can be put on VMware right now? What do you suppose the asking price would be? Would any company, even Cisco, be able to afford it?

Ah yes, there’s that “C” word again. Cisco has long been pointed out as the most likely potential suitor for EMC. They’re big enough, they’ve got products that go hand-in-glove with EMC’s, and right now, they’re pushing their data center management software, VFrame, as well as its integration with VMware, pretty hard. Meanwhile, throughout the data center, server virtualization is the name of the game, and right now VMware’s the only game in town.

Which means its highly unlikely EMC would part with it, or sell themselves out and lose control of an all-time cash cow just as it begins to bear serious fruit. But you never say never–and as Barron’s pointed out, buying the whole farm might be worth it just for that one miraculous bovine.

October 10, 2007  2:32 PM

The budget category conundrum



Posted by: mwright16
Data storage management

Successful patterns of behavior are repeated. That adage is as good a reason as any as to why storage managers are reluctant to change their storage buying or management practices. Yet fundamental changes in how underlying data storage technologies work are forcing a subsequent change in storage management and procurement. Now is the time of year to lay the foundation for those changes.

The fourth quarter is typically when storage managers plan their budgets for 2008, but classifying new storage products is anything but cut and dry. The days of using budget categories like “backup software,” “disk” and “tape” are coming to an end as continuous data protection (CDP), data protection and recovery management (DPRM) software, disk cartridges, iSCSI storage systems and storage virtualization emerge. These technologies don’t quite fit into the tidy budget categories that storage managers have used over the years.

Storage managers are re-thinking and re-wording budget categories so category descriptions can be more inclusive of new storage technologies. For instance, ”backup software” and “tape” might become “data protection software” and “data protection hardware,” respectively, while the “disk” category may be described as a “storage network.” Simple wording changes like these can help storage managers prepare their management teams for the fact that new storage technologies are coming.

Bringing new storage technologies into a company is never an easy task and the larger the company, the more difficult it becomes. However, sticking to storage technologies that have worked in the past is increasingly the wrong way to manage storage. Using new storage technologies, companies stand to get more mileage out of their storage while becoming more efficient in how they manage it. Examining and changing the wording in your budget is a simple way to start the process of change without putting either yourself, or your company, at undue risk.


October 10, 2007  2:04 PM

CDP’s evolution takes shape



Posted by: mwright16
Storage backup

The evolution of the use of continuous data protection in companies is taking shape. BakBone Software’s inclusion of CDP as a new feature in its NetVault:Backup 8.0 release puts it in the growing number of products such as Asigra’s TeleVaulting and InMage Systems DR-Scout that use CDP to protect Windows and Linux servers.

The rationale for including CDP in backup is simple. Easy backup and recovery of standalone Linux and Windows servers remains a significant challenge for administrators. Companies still have too many of this class of servers with too few administrators, who are struggling to provide a cost-effective means to backup and recover this class of servers.

Using CDP as part of the backup client addresses this issue on several fronts. It replicates data to disk locally and remotely; it provides for fast point-in-time recoveries at any past point-in-time (typically 3 – 30 days); and by creating and keeping a complete copy of the data on disk on another host, administrators can manipulate this copy of data in multiple ways.

Continued »


October 10, 2007  1:16 PM

How to archive home directories that don’t have AD accounts



Posted by: Tskyers
Storage conferences, Storage tips

My name is Tory Skyers. Through circumstances not entirely beyond my control (!!) I have been deeply involved throughout my career in various types of centralized and distributed storage. Now, at the end of a long chain of events beginning in Long Beach, CA with Curtis Preston and some blinky magnets (I’ll let you use your imagination), I’ve been offered an opportunity to share some of my experiences and insight with you. 

I’ve been agonizing for a week on what to say for my first Blog. I think it has to be earth-shatteringly profound, so of all the catchphrases and tag lines I came up with, this seemed to sum it all up best:

Hello and thanks for reading my Blog.

What do you think? Just imagine a guy smiling ear to ear and waving at you from behind his keyboard :).

An admission: I’m absolutely fascinated by storage. The technology that goes into connecting computers and people to storage today was the stuff of science fiction 20 years ago. Pause for a second and take a look at where we are in storage: 1 TB hard drives, 55GB optical discs, 10Gb Ethernet, 4Gbps Fibre Channel, 3 millisecond seek times, 300MBps throughput… all these numbers add up to wow, at least to me. When I think about all the technology out there, I feel like that kid at the toy store window with my eyes the size of saucers, staring at the GI Joe with the Kung-Fu grip, and the Spiderman Hotwheels set.

Here in my little corner of cyberspace I’ll be blogging about some of those stare-inducing storage technologies from my perspective, which is that of a network administrator (and according to friends is sometimes “warped and twisted” by my own particular brand of logic. I’ll also be touching on the ennui (SAT word I’ve been dying to use in a sentence) that I see creeping into the market. Check back from time to time and let me know if you agree with me. (And dig out that old SAT prep book while you’re at it–send me a word or two I’ll see if I can roll it in.)

One last thing: I gave a presentation on mobile storage at the recent Storage Decisions show in New York, and at the end of the presentation I mentioned a few scripts I wanted to share with the attendees. Below is a copy-and-paste of a simple script using ADfind from Joeware.net to archive users’ home directories that no longer have Active Directory accounts. This script can certainly be more elegant so feel free to expand, expound and extend.  There are a few things on the “to-do” list for it: first, make it self-contained and not need an input file (i.e., do the AD query using ADODB or something similar). Second, provide logic to validate permutations of a username or directory. Third, be a pretty HTA (HTML Application). I’m working on migrating this script to Powershell.

The code is below the jump. Copy it out using notepad (not wordpad) or some script editor and save it as a .vbs. Run it from the command line with an input text file with one username per line. You’ll need to insert specifics for your environment like domain names, etc. 

Again, thanks for the read! Continued »


October 4, 2007  3:33 PM

Sun has more ZFS visions



Posted by: Beth Pariseau
NAS, Strategic storage vendors


Sun’s campus in Burlington, Mass. Photo by Beth Pariseau.

Today found me at Sun’s campus in Burlington, Mass., one of three cities across the world where Sun was holding “virtualization chalk talks” with press–the others were San Francisco and London.

Why this big fanfare? Sun’s coming out with its own version of a server virtualization hypervisor based on open-source code from Xen and its LDOM “container” offering for UltraSparc servers. Rumors have been circulating about it recently and Sun wanted to clarify its vision.

So what does this have to do with storage? My question exactly. The answer: at this point, probably something, but Sun’s a little light on the details. ZFS was mentioned, of course, as the underlying filesystem for virtual machines running on its xVM Server.

One of the VPs presenting today, Sun’s Connected Systems group leader Steve Wilson, also pointed to the example of the Texas Advanced Computing Center (TACC), which is running a 4000-node IBM blade server farm attached to Sun’s big honkin’ Magnum InfiniBand switch (3456 ports) and a grid of (guess what) “Thumper” SunFire X4500 servers for storage.

This all ties in–vaguely, at this point–with the announcement from Sun on Monday that it’s melding its server and storage groups. Sun’s futuristic vision is that  server processors and Ethernet pipes are catching up to traditional storage subsystems and Fibre Channel fabrics in terms of performance and scalability. It’s essentially a different twist on Sun’s “the network is the computer” mantra that suggests “the server is the SAN.”

Meanwhile, Sun is announcing a software product to go along with xVM called Operations Center, which will manage both physical and virtual server systems in one console. Eventually, when the lion lies down with the lamb, and grid data centers run in server / storage peace and harmony, said software (theoretically) will also manage the Thumper grids everybody’s going to be using for storage.

That’s the idea, anyway. The roadmap is, to put it mildly, unclear. Sun spent most of its time today talking about its new server virtualization technology, and aside from ZFS and Thumper, no specific storage products or services were mentioned, nor was any time frame given for the extension of Operations Center to storage systems, or when or if Sun’s virtualization vision will extend to incorporate traditional storage subsystems.

As always, when it comes to Sun and storage, ZFS is the glue, the linchpin, the centerpiece and the mantra. ZFS is what makes Thumper tick, it’ll be the file system underpinnings for Sun’s virtual servers, and it apparently will also be key to this “data center of the future” Sun is planning out.

But there’s an elephant in the room. “What happens,” asked this reporter of Sun’s officials in Burlington, “if NetApp wins its lawsuit?” (For those of you unaware, NetApp has filed a cease-and-desist lawsuit against Sun claiming ZFS violates NetApp’s NAS patents. The two may eventually drop their posturing and come to some sort of cross-licensing agreement, but as things stand right now, a NetApp win means not a licensing deal but a mandate to stop distributing ZFS altogether, period.)

You could’ve heard a pin drop when the question was asked today. Finally, the response was, ”We are not going to talk about ongoing litigation.”

Reading between the lines, though, it appears that the rest of Sun is following along with Jonathan Schwartz’s somewhat nonchalant attitude toward the lawsuit–the message that seems to be coming from all this is that Sun’s confidence in its legal position is such that it doesn’t feel compelled to hold off one bit with ZFS. But at the same time, it does beg the question of what could happen as they move forward with a storage product strategy that is so heavily dependent on a disputed piece of IP.


September 21, 2007  8:40 AM

Storage newcomers deliver on predecessors’ promises



Posted by: mwright16
Data storage management, Storage backup

CDP and DPRM software are relative storage newcomers, but they may be the software that finally delivers on the promises of their SRM and storage virtualization software predecessors.

Storage resource management (SRM) and storage virtualization software have taken their turns sharing the storage spotlight over the past few years but have, for the most part, largely failed to deliver on their promise. Though companies may use them in some tactical way, such as doing LUN masking, fabric zoning or data migrations, neither has really delivered the simplified, automated storage management environments that vendors promised and customers hoped they would.

Working for a company that tried both, my company saw the strategic value that both SRM and storage virtualization software could deliver but never could figure out a way to turn that promise into a reality. For when push came to shove, it became almost impossible to find a risk-averse and profitable way to transition from Excel-based FC SAN management to SAN management based on the use of these two software tools.

What my company needed, and what is still needed, is a method to segue from FC SANs managed by Excel spreadsheets to the introduction of SRM and storage virtualization software without a rip-and-replace strategy. So, it was while I was evaluating the latest generations of data protection and recovery management (DPRM) software and continuous data protection (CDP) software that I may have stumbled across a way for companies to make this transition.

Companies usually bring DPRM software in-house to report on the success and failures of backup jobs. Though DPRM software still does that, DPRM software is quickly expanding to monitor and report on other components of the backup infrastructure, including server performance, fabric switches and virtual and physical tape libraries. Though the impetus for offering these features is to better troubleshoot systemic problems in the backup infrastructure as well as do capacity planning, companies are inadvertently using DPRM software in much the same way SRM software was intended.

A similar pattern is emerging with CDP software at the high-end, with products such as EMC’s RecoverPoint, HP’s CIC and Symantec’s CDP/R. These CDP software appliances install into FC SAN fabrics and operate just like the original FC SAN-based storage virtualization products except CDP appliances journal all writes and are only used when production storage fails. But other than these characteristics, they are essentially the same as the original FC SAN-based storage virtualization appliances.

The reason users are now willing to introduce either CDP or DPRM software into their production environments is that they no longer feel like they are risking their production applications or stretching their budgets for products whose value proposition is dubious. CDP and DPRM products solve immediate corporate pain points, are justified with existing dollars and require less risk – a win for both the vendors and the users.

Now the question is, will CDP and DPRM software eventually evolve to assume responsibilities that their SRM and storage virtualization software predecessors never really delivered on in the minds of customers? My guess is yes.


September 20, 2007  12:15 PM

At this rate the world will be green in a decade



Posted by: Ndamour
Data storage management, storage technology research, Strategic storage vendors

Not a day goes by that I do not hear from yet another storage or server vendor that their offering, whatever it is, is green. This mania started about a year ago in earnest. Prior to that, the green movement was pretty much restricted to organizations outside of the computer industry. So, what is really going on? What has caused every software and hardware company to suddenly formulate a green message.

I have a theory, and you heard it here first. I think there is a fundamental grassroots movement towards green that has started in the U.S. and it is picking up momentum like no other I have seen in thirty years. This moment is more powerful than the Presidential elections and other important matters facing the country. It is bigger than Exxon and Mobile. It is bigger than GM and Ford. For years, the debate has been raging about global warming. No matter which side of the debate you place yourself, the green movement has begun. And because now it is becoming fashionable, every company in every industry will feel the need to do something “green.” I believe we are now in the phase 1 of this movement. In phase 1, each company takes stock of what they have in their product line and extracts what they can of a green message. Granted most, if not all of these companies had never thought of any of their products in terms of green before. Not in product development and not in marketing. Of course, good design practices prevailed and many resulted in lower power usage or smaller packaging but they were hardly ever viewed within the context of green. So, in Phase 1, what we are seeing is a recasting of the company message incorporating green.

I see it every day. Sometimes I laugh when I see a storage company twisting and turning its message to incorporate green. Even to the point that more than one company has stated to me that they are so green that even their logo has green in it. Give me a break. The logo was done years ago when green was equated to the color of a person’s face when they saw a ghost.

But I frankly don’t care.

I am thrilled just to see the storage companies participate in the green movement. So what if 75% of what I see today is recasting of a message relating to an older product. So what if Manhattan’s energy and space crunch started the ball rolling. I think once the company is committed to the green message they will design their next product accordingly. They can’t escape it. That is why I believe the green movement will have a genuine impact in the next five years. Let the companies play the game. Play along with them. Give them slack for now. Because once they are in, they are in. I love it.

Before you think that there is nothing real in the products today let me restate something. There are technologies that have hit the market in the past three years that are making a serious green impact. Data deduplication is one such technology. It has hit the market on the secondary storage side first, that is, applied to backup/restore and archiving markets. When used in appropriate ways, one can reduce the amount of disk required by a factor of 20. No matter which way you look at it, 1 TB of storage uses a lot less power and requires a lot less cooling than 20 TB. Thin provisioning is another good example. I chose these examples to illustrate a point: it is not simply hardware technologies that deliver green. In fact, at Taneja Group we believe software will play a huge part in the greening of storage and servers. Not to say that hardware wouldn’t play a role. Look at Copan’s MAID technology, for instance. Or IBM and HP’s blade server technology. New techniques for airflow through racks, nanotechnology and new data center designs will all contribute. But, we believe the impact of software technologies will dominate, especially with installed hardware.

Green will soon become a competitive advantage. Because of the financial implications, real change will occur. Soon even the Mobiles and the Exxons will have to yield to the pressure. That is how strong grassroots movements are. I believe the time is here. And I couldn’t be happier.

Note: Recently Taneja Group wrote a Technology In Depth paper on this topic. If you would like a copy please send a request through www.tanejagroup.com.


September 18, 2007  10:51 AM

Web 2.0 companies get deeper into data storage, email SaaS



Posted by: Beth Pariseau
Data storage management, Storage managed service providers, Storage Software as a Service, Strategic storage vendors

Yahoo bought Zimbra Inc.  today for $350 million. The New York Times reports that the acquisition is meant to help Yahoo better compete with Google, and its GMail service, which Google has begun to offer to businesses this year.

We’ve covered GMail quite a bit, both on the main news site and this blog. We covered the launch of Google Apps for Enterprise and its 10 GB inbox, and then spoke with one early adopter of the Apps on how he’d used it to save time and money on email storage. We’ve also discussed some of the “gotchas” with software as a service for enterprises, and fielded Google’s response to those points. Finally, we’ve seen Yahoo peeking over Google’s shoulder a bit, with its announcement of unlimited inbox capacity for its webmail.

Shortly after enterprise storage experts started questioning the security and compliance of Google’s offering, the company went out and bought an enterprise archiving player, Postini. By that time, analysts were remarking that software as a service, particularly for email archiving and backup, is officially back. “People now will say, ‘oh, no one’s going to get rid of Exchange’,” ESG analyst Brian Babineau said at the time. “But it’s a generational thing — newly graduated employees are joining businesses from college already standardized on Gmail, and many corporations are saying, why manage Exchange when employees are already used to this Web-based, outsourced interface?”

It appears Yahoo sees the same writing on the wall. Today, like Google, they purchased another company to bring in some enterprise-level expertise for their email SaaS.

The storage market is already a little bit familiar with Zimbra. It’s an open-source messaging system, so most of the product’s features have little to do with storage, per se. But Zimbra also began announcing archiving customers recently, including an ISP in Dallas, Texas, that plans to offer Zimbra archiving to its customers in local K-12 school districts.

As with Postini, the company that Google acquired, Zimbra’s software has most of the features on the enterprise email archiving checklist, including automatic .pst file discovery and migration, and the ability to index, search and export messages or mailboxes for e-discovery and compliance purposes.

Where it differs from other products is the fact that it can support multiple email systems, including Exchange, Lotus, Domino and GroupWise, as well as its own email application, and can support messages from any combination of those applications in the same repository, the company claims. A disadvantage for Yahooo, meanwhile, is that Zimbra’s archiving product is relatively unproven in the market, having just become generally available July 23.

Interestingly enough, Google had an announcement of its own today–the release of Google Presentations, a Web-based competitor to PowerPoint. Clearly, Google is going after Microsoft hard, but over in this little corner of the IT market, I’m having a bit of a chuckle today–in responding to the “gotchas” in a Q&A with Storage Soup back in April, Google Enterprise product manager Rajen Sheth told me the following:

We’re definitely not trying to duplicate Microsoft Office. The way I would think of it is that Office is very well designed for individual productivity–an individual preparing something to present to a group of people. We’re focusing Google Docs and Spreadsheets on collaborative use case scenarios.

We’ll never know if Google saw an opportunity and changed its mind or if the market taking off influenced its decision to release Presentations. But one thing is clear as this trend continues, with reports also out this week that Facebook is contemplating throwing its hat into the application-storage ring as well: Web 2.0 giants are fast becoming the successors to Microsoft and IBM as the dominant force in computing of the 21st century. The more news I see like this, the more I’m inclined to side with Babineau–the times, they are a-changin’. 


September 14, 2007  7:49 AM

New data backup SaaS players emerge



Posted by: Beth Pariseau
Storage backup, Storage managed service providers, Storage Software as a Service, Strategic storage vendors

Once upon a time in the storage market, storage service providers were all the rage. Then, the tech bubble burst and most of them went the way of the dodo bird.

But with storage growth in recent years forcing companies to consider new strategies for managing data, storage service providers are making a comeback. Within that market space, meanwhile, backup and recovery is the most popular area, as users struggle with the cost of protecting more and more data, the distraction of backup and recovery management from core business and IT operations, and ever-increasing regulation.

Naturally, this is the market where the lion’s share of new players are springing up. EMC Corp. and Symantec Corp. are among the heavy hitters that say they’re planning backup SaaS. But there are also some new and emerging vendors that are gaining attention in the market with the return of interest in outsourcing.

One of the companies that’s made its presence known in recent weeks is Nirvanix Inc., which is aiming to be a business-to-business outsourcer for large companies. It’s come out of the gate overtly challenging Amazon’s S3 service, saying it can overcome the performance issues that have been reported by some large S3 users. The service is also offering a 99.9% uptime SLA to customers.

Nirvanix claims it can offer better performance because it is constructing a global network of storage “nodes” based on the way Web content delivery systems work — by moving the storage and processing power closer to the user, cutting down on network latency.

Within each of Nirvanix’s storage nodes is a global namespace layered over a clustered file system, running on Dell servers residing in colocation facilities. These nodes also perform automatic load balancing by making multiple copies of ”popular” files and spreading them over different servers within the cluster. With this storage infrastructure, the company is claiming that it can offer users a wider pipe as well as a faster one, allowing file transfers of up to 256 GB. Moving forward, according to CEO Patrick Harr, the company plans to offer an archival node for “cold storage” within 6 months.

One potential issue for the company in comparison to S3 is a lack of financial clout to match Amazon. Building out the storage node infrastructure will be an expensive proposition in comparison to creating software and running a typical data center, and so far, the company says it has received just $12 million in funding, some from venture capital firms and some from research grants. However, it also says 25 customers have already signed up for beta testing, and says one of those customers is supporting 50 million end users.

Base pricing for the service is 18 cents per stored gigabyte per month, a “slight premium” over Amazon’s price according to Harr. The company is hoping that it can increase sales volume and drive down the price.

Meanwhile, on the consumer/SMB side, a company called Intronis LLC is souping up its features in the hopes of gaining traction in the low end of the storage market. Version 3.0 of its eSureIT backup service will allow users to create a tapelike rotation scheme for files, creating backup sets and setting policies for data retention on a weekly, monthly and yearly basis. The company has added a plugin it calls Before and After, which will allow users to create scripts dictating what their computer systems should do before, during or after engaging with the Intronis service — for example, the script can have the user’s machine shut down applications prior to backup and restart them after backup has finished. Another new plugin will allow mailbox and message-level backups and restores of Exchange databases, and adds a text search for email repositories.

But the biggest new development, and the one that’s taken it the better part of two years to develop, according to Sam Gutmann, co-founder and CEO, is a feature the company is calling Intelliblox, which like other enterprise-level backup services such as Asigra, backs up only changed blocks over the wire. The feature uses a set of checksum and hashing algorithms to identify blocks and keep them together with their corresponding files (an existing feature of Intronis’s service is total separation between the company’s admins and users’ data — each user is given an encryption key to access its storage at Intronis’s data center, and Intronis says it has no way of reading any of its customer data).

This use of hashing algorithms also has this blogger wondering if they might also be able to offer fixed-content archiving down the road.


September 13, 2007  2:58 PM

The Bill Gates Dream House and your IT career



Posted by: Beth Pariseau
Around the water cooler

This post marks the beginning of a new category here at Storage Soup: Around the Watercooler, a catchall for the technology stories that have nothing to do with storage that we think you’ll find interesting anyway.

 Today there was a press release on the wires entitled “Using the Television to Wash Your Clothes.” According to the release,

The washing machine and the refrigerator are going to start “talking” to the television thanks to a new standard about to be published by the Geneva-based IEC. This new ability to network traditional household appliances with personal computers and audio-visual equipment will offer such possibilities as your television screen displaying the fact that the washing machine has finished washing your clothes or turning on an air conditioner from your personal computer.

One of my closest friends is a big-time tech geek, not only an IT guy in his own right but a sharp follower of consumer technology. The kind of guy who had a TiVo and a Netflix account years and years before they were cool or even well-known. You know the type–many of you out there in readerland are probably the same way.

This friend’s subscribes to the theory that the personal computer will one day become an appliance in the home like a water heater or an HVAC system–the computer itself, like one of those devices, would sit in the basement out of sight and out of mind to the homeowner (and like a water heater or air conditioning unit, would require specialized servicepeople to administer and fix). Also like a water heater or AC, the computer would connect to all the systems in the house, automating and personalizing every other appliance from the toaster to whatever screen / keyboard / hologram combination comes to represent an Web browsing portal.

My friend is the first person I heard describe this home of the future, but he definitely wasn’t first with the idea. In fact, there’s already a prototype of this type of home being lived in daily in our country, and it belongs to none other than Bill Gates.

Of course, Gates is a guy rich enough to have tropical sand barged in to Washington state for his private beach, so some of this is just Cribs-esque because-I-can excess. But Gates has also publicly announced his intention to market versions of his home technology for the masses. One example of technology that could fit into the water-heater computer of the future is described in a Wikipedia article: “visitors are surveyed upon entrance and are given a microchip that sends signals throughout the house to adjust temperature and other conditions according to preset user preferences.”

The ratification of a standard for this type of technology suggests that other people are thinking along the same lines. And in even as little as another half-decade, we could be looking back on the “digital home” of this era as child’s play.

Think, also, of the possible career opportunities this represents for those in the IT field.  Putting this much technology into the home could bring the IT guy out of his traditional data center, transforming him into the plumber of the 21st century. It’s already happening to some extent with businesses like Best Buy’s Geek Squad. And hey, before you scoff at that, I know some plumbers too, and they actually tend to make a very nice living.

P.S. Can’t miss pointing out just one more detail from the Wikipedia article on Gates’s house:

The number of building permits needed completely overwhelmed the Medina county clerk’s office, necessitating the move to a new Linux-based computer infrastructure to deal with the volume.


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