Ian Paul, writing in the Security blog for PCWorld, gives us three warning signs that email is malicious:
- Dear Customer — an email not addressed directly to you using your registered name [or, with no salutation at all. Ed.].
- A weird looking link that is confusing and not obviously from the source. [Here’s a good one: http://twierdzaprzemysl.za.pl/qjjaonoars/<redacted>html]
- An attachment
To that list, I would add blatant grammatical errors that make it obvious the sender does not have English as a first language. Example: “It’s operated by Dropbox and safety” in a message I recently saw.
And one more thing: Were you expecting to receive that email? Even if it says it’s from someone you know, you know the types of things your friends send you. If you get lots of emails about cats from one of your friends and then start getting emails about foreign lotteries, you can assume something’s up.
Stay on your toes and think before you click.
The proliferation of public WiFi hotspots has certainly made it convenient for mobile users, but it has also make it riskier. You have no control over the security features implemented, if any, and you have no way of knowing what they are. Therefore, you have to be extra cautious when using public hotspots.
- Do not access sensitive personal accounts such as your bank or credit cards
- Ensure that any websites you visit use HTTPS and display a lock icon
- Watch out for “shoulder surfing” from people and be aware that security cameras may be recording you, too
- Never use a public computer kiosk, such as one in a hotel lobby or “business center” to access personal information
People are creating a “new” profile of someone and then they add the target’s friends, hoping that since you know them, you will add them. As part of the ruse, they make up some excuse as to why they had to create the new account. They will message you about winning a lot of money or some other reason, and try to get you to go to some site and sign up, etc., etc. I know someone whose account was spoofed, and I have a friend who had a relative’s account spoofed.
Facebook will immediately disable the fake account if you report it promptly. If anyone tells you they are receiving strange messages from you, investigate and make sure your account hasn’t been spoofed.
Let your friends know that they shouldn’t be receiving any friend requests from you, since you are already connected.
But until something I’m not expecting blindsides me and causes me a bit of inconvenience, I’m not going to install the bloatware on my systems. Most of it doesn’t work anyway and when users insist on clicking on scary popups because “of course I don’t want 10,000 viruses and registry errors and fix it for me now, please” all the while ignoring the warnings of their legitimate AV application, what’s the use? They bring those systems to me, all horked up with random junk and I find that they have AV software installed, but they opted in to all the adware that’s ******* up their computers anyway.
I don’t click on random links and I ignore popups. I’m a professional, of course, and I have everything backed up all the time and if I ever see a popup, I first ask, “Is this from an app I have installed?” I understand that most people have no clue and probably have no business owning and/or operating a computer.
But that’s why the cybercriminals are successful, isn’t it? Very few people are pros. Most of them will fall for anything.
My point is this: the AV companies are making money on people who they can’t help anyway. I may be wrong. Please tell me if I am. But 11 years of not running anti-malware software on my systems (I do occasionally do a safe mode scan, but I don’t run anything in the background) without a single infection on any of my systems is enough to convince me that smart computing and safe surfing practices is enough.
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We security wonks constantly entreat our users not to use common words or phrases for their passwords, and certainly to never re-use passwords on more than one site. Another no-no is using keyboard patterns. The reason people do such things is that they are easy to remember. The problem is that the bad guys have all of these common poor password practices figured out and set up in their password cracking algorithms right alongside of their dictionary files and lists of hacked common passwords. With this exercise, I’m trying to get you to think randomly, not in patterns, though there is a pattern and symmetry here. Of course, no one will use this, but coming up with this stuff is just my way of having fun.
This novel approach that will give you a minimum of 10,000 secure pass phrases at your fingertips (or in your wallet or purse) using only the words. If you choose the modify it with numeric/special character options, you can get many more. If you do the math, the number of combinations of a group of characters is N^R, or the number of choices to the power of how many of those you use. In the basic method below, you have 10 choices and will use 4 of them, so you have 10,000 possible combinations. You can use this to securely write down your pass phrases (well, the aliases for your pass phrases) anywhere you want in the form of 4-digit numbers. Since no one will know what words are on your list, they can know your aliases but they won’t know your pass phrases. If you add secret complications (more about that in a minute), the number of guesses required gets astronomical (or should I say geometrical?)
First, take a piece of paper and write the numerals 0 through 9 on the left side. Then, pick 10 words that are familiar to you. You can use any common words or names that you will remember. Rules about not using pet names, kids’ names, your name, your spouse’s name, etc., don’t apply here because they will be used in a long and random combination. We all have at least ten of those. Here is my example (not to be used, of course–create your own):
Those of you who have ever taken a typing class will recognize those words and my slight alteration of it to fill the 10 slots.
Now, what’s the model year of your main ride? Mine is 2005. So, I write down 2005 as my alias and my pass phrase is BrownTheTheOver. Need another pass phrase for something? My birth year is 1953, so I use QuickDogOverFox as my pass phrase.
This method won’t win you any awards for password strength, but they’re sufficiently strong for most purposes. If you want to ramp them up, choose a numeral or special character that you insert between each word. It’s still easy to remember, but it adds 3 more characters to your phrase. I choose @, so I now have Brown@The@The@Over and Quick@Dog@Over@Fox. Visit Steve Gibson’s Password Haystacks site and check those out. My alias for those is 2005@ and 1953@.
The only thing missing here is a numeral to make the character domain consist of upper and lower case letters, numerals and special characters, so let’s add a numeral. Just put it at the beginning or the end and make your alias reflect that. Let’s use the numeral 7 and put it in front. I now have 7Brown@The@The@Over and 7Quick@Dog@Over@Fox. Your alias becomes 72005@ or 71953@ and the strength of the pass phrases goes geometrical, astronomical or what-have-you, into the hundreds of thousands of trillions of centuries to run a brute force crack.
Of course, this is entirely too much work for the average computer user, so I’ll still try “password” as my first guess, followed by “12345678,” “letmein,” and a few others.
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Bruce Schneier said, “Blaming the victim is common in IT: users are to blame because they don’t patch their systems, choose lousy passwords, fall for phishing attacks, and so on.”
So true, and something that I have come to (reluctantly) refrain from doing. Face it, people do things they shouldn’t do, or don’t do things they should. Either way, if there are no immediate consequences, no lesson is learned. Unless Lizzie’s PC completely shuts down when she clicks on an email link, she’ll continue to do it, oblivious to any strange behavior in her browser that results. And she’ll never connect those ill-advised clicks to the theft of her credit card information and subsequent fraudulent charges to her account.
These days, malware is designed to appear as if it’s supposed to be there or to make its effects blend in with the normal operation of the computer. I see this stuff every day and when it simply redirects the browser to another search site or pops up a message saying I need to speed up my computer, I find myself sympathizing with the user. When the really scary popups – “You have 10 bazillion infections!!!! Click here to clean now” – show up, I realize that no one with insufficient technological knowledge is going to recognize that for what it is. The knee-jerk-click-the-button reaction to the scary message is what the crooks depend on.
So, don’t blame the victim. Don’t chastise them for what happened. Don’t make them wrong. Do gently explain to them what happened and hope that the repair bill is sufficient experience and feedback for them to think twice the next time.
We’ve all seen it: You try to uninstall junkware and PUPs (Potentially Unwanted Programs) and they phone home to tell you how sorry they are to see you leave. That’s annoying enough, but what else is going on that you don’t know about? Besides not asking for your permission to connect in the first place, they may be:
- Logging your user information such as IP, OS, browser info, etc.
- Installing more junkware (toolbars, etc.) in the background without your knowledge or consent.
- Installing malware such as key loggers and browser hijackers.
The only way to be sure this doesn’t happen is to disconnect from the internet when uninstalling this stuff. And the absolute best way to uninstall it safely is to reformat the hard drive and re-image the OS.
From Krebs on Security:
…early Wednesday morning, two security firms – Milpitas, Calf. based FireEye and Fox-IT in the Netherlands — launched decryptcryptolocker.com, a site that victims can use to recover their files.
The Cryptolocker malware was first spotted in September 2013. It uses very strong encryption to lock Microsoft Office documents, photos, MP3 files, and other files that victims may value. The unfortunate victims of the malware were faced with paying a steep ransom–usually starting at a few hundred dollars in bitcoins–to the cybercrooks. Victims were given 72 hours to pay; if they didn’t make payment in time, the ransom demand increased by five times or more, often amounting to several thousand dollars.
Only about 1.3% of victims ever paid the ransom, so most of them probably lost all of their important files. Even at such a low response, considering that the number of infected systems is probably in the range of six figures, the crooks made (are probably still making) huge profits. 1300 payments of $300 USD (the minimum payment) per 100,000 infections is $390,000.
The decryptcryptolocker.com site provides a free new online service that can help victims unlock and recover files scrambled by the malware.
Victims need to provide an email address and upload just one of the encrypted files from their computer, and the service will email a link that victims can use to download a recovery program to decrypt all of their scrambled files.
According to Krebs, Fox-IT was able to recover the private keys that the cybercriminals were using to run their own decryption service. The firms naturally aren’t saying much about how they got their hands on the keys, but it apparently had something to do with the crooks’ attempts to recover from Operation Tovar, “an international effort in June that sought to dismantle the infrastructure that CryptoLocker used to infect PCs.”
However they did it, I say good for them. Hit the crooks where it counts–their wallets.
What do you do when the very software you depend on to keep you safe from malware has vulnerabilities? Those of us who use Symantec Endpoint Protection on our networks are pondering this dilemma. Seems that SEP is vulnerable to attack.
The people at Offensive Security have announced that in the course of a penetration test for one of their customers they have found several vulnerabilities in the Symantec Endpoint Protection product. While details are limited, the vulnerabilities appear to permit privilege escalation to the SYSTEM user which would give virtually unimpeded access to the system. Offensive Security has posted a video showing the exploitation of one of the vulnerabilities.
Symantec has indicated they are aware of the vulnerabilities and are investigating.
There is some irony in the fact that there are Zero Day vulnerabilities in the software that a large portion of users count on to protect their computer from malware and software vulnerabilities. The fact is that software development is hard and even security software is not immune from exploitable vulnerabilities. If there is a bright side, it appears that there are no exploits in the wild yet and that local access to the machine is required to exploit these vulnerabilities.
This is a good lesson in why layered security or security-in-depth is so important. You cannot rely only upon a single protection method.
This is something that bears repeating by all of us. It’s very important that everyone identify web addresses before clicking the link. Malicious web sites that look legitimate are commonly used by cyber-crooks to trick unwary users.
It’s very easy to identify the true address of a link: just place the cursor over the displayed address and the true destination will reveal itself. If anything looks suspicious (for example, a link like www.wallmart.com.cn), don’t click it.
Even greater caution is needed with shortened addresses like tinyurl.com and bit.ly and many other such services. Use their preview feature to display the true source. For QR codes, make sure your app allows you to preview the destination before opening the link.
And when it comes to apps and software, only download from trusted sources.