Quality Assurance and Project Management


May 17, 2012  5:34 PM

Learning From Failures Is An Art

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Failures do happen in projects. There are definitely sizing and severity of failure in a project. The size and severity of a failure is measured by the impact a failure poses on business in various terms – reputation, financial and future loss in growth impacted by such factors. Some organizations are wise enough to understand the gravity of failure and start working in direction of mitigation of risks that arise out of it.

In fact chances of failures go higher in a project if there is a major component missing during the management of project and that component must be taken care of well in the beginning of a project as a whole; and at the beginning of each phase of the project. This component is nothing but is termed as Risk Management. Risk management in simple terms is how you manager risks. To manager risks it must be clear to you what can pose as a risk in a project and how much impact can it have on the project if it occurs. Measurement of impact needs to be objective.

More realistic assessment of risk, planning preparation to mitigate the risk and actions taken for the mitigation – all deliver to higher chances of progress of a project and its success.

May 17, 2012  5:31 PM

Basic Ingredients Of A Project

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project comprises of many components. There are people to manage project, there are others who drive the project. Managing and driving a project is not similar though there might be some overlapping forming a common area between the two. Managing could be more of controlling and monitoring whereas driving could be more of actions so as to make management easier.

It is quite possible that ultimate goal could be same – to complete the project in time; but there will be two differential activities happening in the project. One would be more based on strategy forming and planning; second would be acting/ working on those strategies and giving them a real shape.

Planning and implementation go hand in hand – head to head – in a dynamic mode. The moment one becomes static and other remains dynamic; there will be a deadlock. By nature – both are supposed to be dynamic – as there is nothing like planning and then implementing. If it could be that simple, management part could have been required only in the beginning of a project. But in reality it does not happen. Planning keeps changing based on the project taking shape during its implementation. The pace of dynamism in both is actually required to be progressing in sync.


May 17, 2012  5:19 PM

Communication Is Perhaps The Most Serious Thread During A Project

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Irrespective of whether it is offshore project or the whole team is sitting within the same building; communication does play a major role in project management. No project covers its trajectory painlessly. It is the communication that keeps all teams attuned and intact in terms of staying together in a project. It is only communication that can revive back a derailed project; if done timely and appropriately. Else a project going in going in high speed in right direction may lose its track and start moving in a wrong direction.

It is not only important to receive proper information. The story does not end here. It is more important to understand the right kind of gravity of information in right time and on top of that – taking action on the same. Closing of loop happens only once you have received an information and understood its impact on ongoing project; and act accordingly in right direction.

How do you treat and build up communication as – as Thread or as Threat?

Do you take Problem as Opportunity?


May 7, 2012  4:17 AM

Project Management Started Around Six Decades Back

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project Management Started around 6 decades back when it was felt by top engineers, builders, designers and architects; the need of a systematic and structured approach to manager complex projects so as to stay focused and informed throughout the project about its progress and achievement of landmarks or milestones. The management tools designed during that period spread all across various streams like civil projects, defense projects, engineering and of similar kind.

It was Henry Gantt during 1950s who is known to create some systematic approach to project management by means of concrete planning, monitoring, controlling and measuring techniques. And hence he is also known as the Father of Project Planning. Gantt charts are as famous, popular and effective today as they were in the beginning. Even today Gantt Chart is established as one of the most effective project controlling tool. Henry Gantt was highly influenced by his mentor and teacher Fredrick Winslow Taylor. Taylor is known to be the original creator of theories for the management of projects in a scientific manner.

It was firstly in Taylor’s papers that something known as WBS or work breakdown structure emerged as a good source of cutting down your huge and complex project into simple and small tasks and hence achieving success in each task one after the other. Gradually a group of tasks’ completion earmarks an achievement of a milestone. Completion of certain set of milestones completes a project phase. And ultimately completion of certain phases overall finishes the project.

Once you have created WBS for your project, then comes another effective tool produced by Taylor, known as Resource Allocation.


May 6, 2012  6:20 PM

Project Management Is A Zero Balance Account

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

What is takes in a project is to plan, organize, and manage – time and resources so as to optimize commercial part of the project. And managing it in some way or the other is known as Project Management. The way could be any legacy, orthodox, manual process to a modern, fully automated, state of the art, well proven and well established project management tool.

Basically Project Management is nothing but to run the show in most disciplined manner. Resources, Planning, organization and management is all inclined to gain achievement and success in any project being part of. What you know in a project is scope of work, start time, target time, and usually based on this you have to work out the size of your various teams, financial goals, project plan and its smooth implementation. It is not difficult to achieve results, provided you are well aware of the goals and objectives. There is no project where constraints do not arise during its lifecycle – related to finance, time, objectives, team or customer.

Management of project is a mix of two ingredients – managerial skills and technical capabilities. A right amount of balance is a must in project management. Although these are two entirely different streams of management but somehow at times have a singular goal of achievement in target.


May 6, 2012  8:11 AM

Project Management and PRINCE2

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

There are many tools available in the global, local and glocal markets that boast about helping you in management of your projects. Some of them might be really good. But the point of fact is that not all good things in life fit in well to everyone. Depending on the culture in your organization, kind of people you have employed who are directly responsible for projects, and above all your intentions of staying wherever you are in competition and revenues aspects or climb up the ladder fast to reach to one of the top few positions and then sustain to stay there for long.

PRINCE2 is one of the legendary tool to manage projects in a well structured manner so as to optimize the project progress throughout it various phases and increase the chances of its success. It was launched in market in the year 1996. It was in line with and an advanced version of an older tool that was known as PROMPT. Gradually it emerged as a strong tool in terms of a strong and well defined project management framework and helps organizations in adopting world class methodologies to manage the project.

Basically PRINCE2 teaches you to synchronize the two major aspects of any project – people and tasks. It provides you with a wire frame to structure your project in a well defined manner thereby aligning all micro level tasks that are part of the project with the various members of the team who are managing the project. PRINCE2 provides you with a wider spectrum to help you in deciding on the design of the project and the manner it must be supervised to ensure its success. There are timely alerts in real time of running of project to get raised in case there is any deviation in the project progress as per its plan. It not only raises an alarm but also finds out best possible ways for you to get back on the track.


May 6, 2012  6:56 AM

Coding Is Not All About Coding – Three Tips

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

As a developer you might be very good in coding having an expertise in writing bug-free code extensively long having thousands of lines and quite rigorous in nature. But what about the non-coding component that is required to be built in and around your coding. Have you ever wondered that not all excellent coders are very successful in life in long run.

Top three tips to become a good coder that can make you an all rounder in all aspects and probably can act as a ladder to climb higher than you normally perceive during your career growth; are:

1. Act as a Catalyst to Business: Your value will increase when you stop talking in coding terms and start talking in business terms.

2. Value your code on the basis of your actual delivery to business: The day you know value of business that your coding can deliver or is delivering or vice versa, you will either start refurbish your coding style (as well as your understanding pattern) or you will start enhancing your coding to deliver more than what you are delivering.

3. Demand business knowledge: When your project manager tries to make you understand the coding he is expecting from you without showing you the wider angle, demand it. Ask what is going to be delivered by writing this code. What value will it add to the business. Your project manager might be travelling on a wrong boat with wrong perception. Brainstorming could help in alignment of technology and business thereby bringing more value to both.


April 29, 2012  6:58 PM

Five Things To Forget While Testing To Do Blunders

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

For a tester it is important to be having a different frame of mind in terms of looking at the product from a different angle something uniquely apart from how others look at it. Usually testers have a third eye probably either developed on their own or is god gifted. With this third eye they are able to see the product the way it is to be looked at by the customer or the end user.

A Tester must forget certain things while testing a product if he is determined to produce or find out all of the ‘critical bugs’ hidden in the product so that it goes in a good shape to the customers. Five most important things to remember to forget while testing are:

1. Never underestimate your capabilities and different style of looking at a product

2. Never hide a bug from development team if it appears as a half bug to you. Half bug is something where you are not sure whether it is a bug or not. In any case of ambiguity or doubt in mind, just discuss the scenario with your peers, or superiors to conclude the things.

3. Cover the whole product but passing through each of the chunk. Your test cases have to work both at a broader level and micro level. The product sanity as a whole is as important as the functioning of each of its unit.

4. Deliver in time but without compromising with any of the situation.

5. Re-use test cases from your library where the repository keeps building up as a generic collection.


April 29, 2012  6:31 PM

Team Attitude During Project Can Do Wonders Or Blunders

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

A project never goes smooth throughout its lifecycle. One or the other hiccups keep raising their heads belonging to various verticals connected to the project. It could be customer raised issue, product related concern or finance related query raised on project, for instance. Things, still, keep moving. Nothing stops. Efforts to overcome these obstacles keep going on. Once or twice in the beginning there is a tendency to give up things all together. Otherwise, based on experience and maturity, this give up tendency is overpowered by never dying attitude.

Attitude of the team matters most in any project. Higher is the amount of risks perceived, higher will be preparation required by the team to mitigate those risks. Mostly similar kind of risks that are part of current project become handy to tackle based on their happening in previous projects and the mitigation process adopted. Though it is not necessary that a mitigation process also remains as it is throughout various projects. A mitigation process also may require increase in maturity level so as to manage the things in a much better way than they were manager previously.


April 28, 2012  7:24 PM

Quality Is Not What You See But Also What You Feel

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Tester is running n number of test cases to build a confidence over test lead that testing on product is being taken care of in most professional way, with complete coverage of all scenarios. Test lead gets satisfied and after few test runs, the product becomes ready to launch.

Product is working fine and ultimately it is put on production server after all UAT activities are formally closed. Usability is one of the factor that goes with feeling of the user rather than the appearance on screen. It might, though cover appearance, navigation, layout, design, and overall comfort it gives to the user.

Not all users will have same feelings about a product. Depending on how much one is required as an end user to delve in the usage of product, one will start looking at it or rather will start feeling it when it is being used on a regular basis.


April 28, 2012  6:59 PM

Sustenance Is Tougher Than Achievement

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Although you are performing your task quite handsomely and have earned a good amount of respect among your peers, team members, management and customers. But one important thing to keep in mind always is that all days are not equal, everyday is not Sunday and above all, you just can’t sit on your laurels. Each day is a new challenge in life. Everyday you have to do something new, a new achievement to establish yourself and maintain your sustainability.

Sustenance is tougher than gaining fame for a particular deed. Memories are short lived as far as achievements are concerned. History is not very important in corporate life. You might have done or achieved far more than others but if that is history, and chances are that if you are running at a slower pace now, many others will overtake you and you might not even get to know about it.


April 28, 2012  5:10 AM

Most Valuable Asset In Any Project Is PROJECT TEAM

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Your team is your most valuable asset in the whole project management cycle. Products come and go, showstoppers chip in and are resolved out, issues are raised and closed, deadlines are given and passed or met, milestones are made to show some tangible achievements during any project.

But how all this keep happening is because of your team. Your achievements, project success, milestones achievements, meeting the deadlines, closure of issues, resolution of showstoppers is all managed by none other than your team members. Imagine a scenario where you are told to manage the show single handed and it is dead sure that everything will become a standstill at that moment only.

When you build your team, it is like building with the best possible people and in best possible manner so that it becomes a win-win preposition for all – including organization, team members, and top management. how about sustenance of the same win-win preposition throughout, forever. Initially when team members are new in the team, they are shown and told about all best things but gradually the thorns start erupting out and the bed of roses starts converting into bed of thorns.

How as a Project Manager do you ensure that this bed of roses remains as it is forever. Think of building the bed with roses after removing their thorns. :)


April 28, 2012  4:39 AM

Hey Project Manager What Is Your SLA With Your Team

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Hi Project Manager,

Last time when we were sitting together and discussing about your projects, you were anxious to work out a service level agreement to be discussed with your Internet Service Provider with whom you had a meeting after some time. You wanted to know what are the key factors that should be placed in a standard agreement with the ISP so as to make it more powerful in terms of ensuring consistent unfailing service from your vendor.

Well that you got materialized and your ISP is providing you excellent services for the last one quarter. I was just wondering how about working out a service level agreement between you and your team. How about understanding what your team would be expecting from your besides whatever facilities and perks they are getting in the organization. There is something more than salary and perks that matters in professional life in terms of giving it to your team. Some approach that keeps your team charged, committed, connected and in sync all the time.

Have you ever thought on such matter ever or is it a plain vanilla routine project management running in the organization?


April 25, 2012  5:32 PM

What Is Your Mentor-o-Meter Reading

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Hey Project Manager, you could be a very successful professional doing perfectly good in your projects. How about your teammates. Have you ever bothered to notice their qualities and have publicly praised and appreciated about those? You might have, I am sure, and many times. After all you know that it is your team that is delivering at their best thereby making you the most successful project manager among your peers.

Well, that is right. But that does not mean everything you have achieved in your professional life is only because of your teammates and with none of your personal qualities or extra efforts that you keep pouring in your project lifeline. That also sounds good. Now let us go a step further. Are you recognized among your team members as a good project manager or a mentor. As a good project manager you will be able to get the best out of your team members but as a mentor your will enhance their capabilities beyond their expectations.

As a good project manager you will be remembered by your team members as long as they are with you. But if you have been able to mentor them well, they will never be able to forget you wherever they are in their career ladder.


April 8, 2012  4:07 PM

Before Belling The Cat You Must Be Capable Enough To Identify Most Dangerous

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Issues getting raised, understood, tackled, handled and resolved is not anything new during an ongoing project. It keeps happening from time to time during the complete project lifecycle. More so often, if there are no problems in executing a project, it becomes doubtful as if there is definitely something wrong in the game.

Priorities do change during the execution not for the purpose of delay in the final timeline committed to the customer but to cover up the delays happening during the project due to various reasons. Prioritization is not simple. It may spoil the whole gamut if it is not done properly and wisely. Re-prioritization is rather more difficult. There are certain things already in stream in which so many team members are engaged. Changing their track and moving them from any running task to a new task is really challenging for all involved in the process. It might be easy to suggest a change in track but looking at its intricacies and requirements of speedily changeover, it becomes an uphill task for project manager to manage the show.

That is why the most important thing before re-prioritization of tasks is to understand the intricacies each task wise and the probably it is always better to do a risk assessment and analysis for such cases demanding higher priority at the cost of already prioritized and running activities.


April 8, 2012  2:47 PM

Check Your Reporting Process And Style Before Launch

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Reporting, meeting, follow up, timeline are all integral part of any project during any phase. These are generally collaborative tools that make the entire stakeholders lie on the same page for that sake. It is difficult for all stakeholders to work from the same physical location due to their different business aspects and engagements. In that case the regular reporting procedure must be strong enough to fill in such gaps.

Besides some important facts like timely release of report, ensuring it getting addressed to all concerned etc. some more important factors in reporting are:

1. Format/ Template: The template has to be precisely as per the requirements and audience. A chapter of engineering class if included in accounts students’ book will be of no use. It has to be properly designed so as to cater to its purpose.

2. Non-Confusing: It is usually said that if you don’t know what exactly to present in a report, put lot of confusing stuff in it, and mostly you will win the case, until there comes a smart person who understands what is there between the lines and then you will be hiding places.

3. Automate: Try automating the report getting generated automatically and going to respective inboxes of stakeholders so as to shred off the manual efforts.

4. Discuss: Sending reports does not suffice any purpose unless they are discussed and based on that some plans are incorporated.

5. Feedback: Check with the respective recipients of report if it lacks any piece of information or how it can be optimized further. There is always a scope of improvement.


April 8, 2012  9:22 AM

How Distant Are You From Your Team Matters A Lot

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

You are a team leader at whatever level you may be. There would be multiple team designs falling under you in your organization chart. Some below the line would be directly reporting to you while the others would be reporting to your first line reportees . It matters a lot how far or close you are with your teams in terms of conveying your messages and building a culture.

Physical distances do not matter in case of maintaining a strong communication process or culture with your teams. Whatever you expect from your team can come possibly in two ways – one you keep telling them about and two, walk the talk. What they must do in the work environment, you must demonstrate them by involving them in certain activities even though they might have no role to play in during that particular activity. While demonstrating you can very easily assess who all are keenly observing and absorbing it for future purposes and who are just carefree and least bothered about it.

In fact the best way of teaching a lesson is only when you are able to teach the least attentive team member. Once the message is conveyed properly, you can be rest assured about your team behavior with customer and other stakeholders even if you are not in the picture. You need not police your team to understand their way of managing the things unless you are too strict in allowing your teams to provide them any flexibility or some of your team members are not matured enough for that matter.


April 6, 2012  7:33 AM

Are You Nurturing Your Project Well

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Nurturing of a plant, Upbringing of a teenage child and project management – all comprise of various issues, hiccups, bottlenecks, problems and troubles. All three above require a well-planned charter and its execution. The amount of fertilizer required for a plant cannot be altered in terms of quality. More fertilizer than required may incur harmful effects rather than enhancing its growth. Each child has a different set of combination of moods and in the same manner each project has its own unique experience in terms of initiation, execution, implementation and handover.

Plans, follow-ups, timelines, monitoring, alerts, escalations, meetings, alarms – usually go hand in hand along with the project lifecycle. These are not meant to pinpoint any team member’s integrity but the strengthen project execution process. Basically the overall purpose is none other than timely and rightly execution of project and complete satisfaction of the customer. All the pains encountered during any project get nullified if the end result is welcomed by all stakeholders and all the objectives are met.

It is always a combination of good, efficient people; and well defined processes that build a strong team to make any project successful. As a norm if your well established processes have significantly been successful in terms of project completion; then any deviations from those processes; or for that sake, any shortcuts, would invite troubles that might not be visible apparently over the carpet in the beginning.


April 6, 2012  7:29 AM

Never Let Lack Of Process Mar Your Efficiency

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Sometimes lack of processes mar efficiency of people and establishes them as useless entities even though they do not fall in that category. On the other hand, no efficient manager would like to compromise with his performance due to lack of processes and in that case would fight for establishing them first. Time and money are two prime tools of a project that have the power of converting it into a win or loss.

Both the prime factors are interrelated too. More time consumption in a project will always call for more expenses and hence decrease in overall margins and profits. The moment project management team becomes capable of identifying time consuming activities and factors behind them; a process enhancement journey begins thereupon. More enhancements of processes mean much sharpening of your swords that are being used in the battle of project management.

The much sharpened sword you have in your hand in the battle, the higher are your chances of winning the match. The same applies in project management too.


March 31, 2012  8:13 PM

3 Quick Questions From PMO

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project Management Office has to play three way role in the project. They have to ensure project timelines on one hand; interacting with customer on regular basis; and engaging all stakeholders throughout the project. If this synchronization does not undertaken by PMO, then probably there will be number of blasts during and after the project.

Three quick questions that come into mind in that regard are:

1. Is PMO active entity: PMO has to be active day in and day out during a project lifecycle, else wrong people would be driving the wrong train with wrong destination in mind. With so many wrongs, there are least chances of any project going to see the light of the day.

2. Does any top management member represent PMO: If PMO is not comprising of at least one of the top management member, probably it is going to get into trouble from all ends.

3. Is PMO driving the project: If it is not PMO that is driving the project, there are high chances of getting timelines getting skipped or delayed.


March 31, 2012  8:01 PM

3 Quick Questions From QC Manager

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

A project is like a large container of apples having rotten ones among them but hidden well in between the good ones; if it is not QCed well. Quality has a major role to play in determining the health of any project/product and to ascertain when the product is in right condition so that it can be released to the customer.

Three qucik questions that come to my mind for a QC head/ team are as below:

1. Do you Get into the shoe of your customer: As a quality team, your prime role, while QCing the product is to get into the shoe of your customer. If you don’t have that capability probably you might do a good quality check of look and feel but the lifeline of the product – its functionality; would get affected in a major way.

2. Are you Aware about the customer requirements: If you have gone through the customer requirements in detail; have clarified all your doubts cleared with the customer/ development team/ product and customer analysis team; it is very good. Otherwise you are hitting the goal in a total dark condition. You need to learn customer requirements well, complete in all aspects; get it into your blood, and then start analysis of the product built to cater to those requirements.

3. Are you engaged in the project right from begining: If you are partnering the project right from its inecption stage; it is great. Otherwise you have not checked all the compartments of the train but a sample testing.


March 31, 2012  7:52 PM

3 Quick Questions From Project Manager

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

The quick questions that I wanted to post for a project manager who is managing a project come to my mind as below:

1. Do you own the project: Are you merely acting as a project manager without owning the project. If that is the case then probably you will have enough number of things not moving as per expecations in the project and on top of that you would have enought numbrer of excuses for them not getting closed in time.

2. Do you really love your job: If you have become a project manager not by choice and merely by chance then probably you are going to get in thick soup sooner of later unless you start loving your profile thereby taking project timelines passionately.

3. Are you Proactive enough: Do you have an ability to foresee any showstoppers that are going to misalign your project or derail your smoothly running project.

If you have an answer for these three questions, it is good, at least you care for your project. If your answers to these questions are affirmative, probably you are going to win the game; else be ready for a big disaster at any moment of time.


March 26, 2012  6:46 PM

Ten Cs In A Macho Project Manager Part II

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

This article is in continuation from the previous one…

4. Clustering: You have different flowers in your garden. It depends on you how you carve them, mould them, arrange them, and cluster them to prepare the best of the bouquet in the world. Generating a feeling of pride in your team for working with you on a project is something that can fetch the best of results for you in any kind of testing conditions.

5. Cognizant: If you respect conscious of each of your team members, probably your will be the luckiest person on this earth to get everybody’s respect from the bottom of their heart.

6. Common-sense: Apply common sense everywhere, in all aspects of your project, though it is not too common. The more you grow in life, the more you will need it. And it applies in reverse order too. The more you apply it in your work, the more chances you have to grow. Understand the nerve of customer in order to win over any kind of situation.

7. Commanding: You have to be demanding and commanding in order to get the best out of your teams and then give them the best in return.

8. Cameo: Remember that you are the hero for your team(s).

9. Cost Effective: You have to be cost effective if you want to increase profitability of your project. Walking the talk is the best way to achieve your mission.

10. Colourful: Wearing the same face expressions, presenting yourself in the same mood, talking to your team members in same manner all the time will make the journey dull and boring. Be vibrant.


March 26, 2012  6:41 PM

Ten Cs In A Macho Project Manager Part I

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Some people match with their job well. Some jobs match with the people who accept it. Doing something well is one thing, doing it in an extraordinary and simple manner is not everybody’d cup of tea. Very few project managers are there who vivaciously run the show with complete positive frame of mind with 360 degrees of integrity.

Ten Cs that can make any project manager a manager with an extra edge are as below:

1. Consistency: One time win cannot sustain a captain as captain. You have to have an urge to win all the time you get down on the field. You have to keep on achieving success not once but always. You can’t sit on your laurels. Failures are unavoidable at times, but learning from failures and let it not repeat again is the mark of wise men. Never repeat a mistake. Making a mistake and learning from it makes you wise. Making the same mistake again proves you fool in front of others, unarguably.

2. Clarity: Clarity of business, clarity in mind, clarity about your product and clarity about customer is very important without which you just can’t survive in the stream. If the picture is not clear to you, it can’t be expected from your team members to have a better understanding and clarity.

3. Cognitive: Perception of success is as important as success itself. If you can’t perceive success in advance, you won’t strive for success. You must have a passion for winning and getting a smile on every face of your team.

…Continued


March 11, 2012  5:23 PM

Five Financial Constraints For Releasing Project Payments

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Very few projects get cleared off in terms of timely payments. Mostly the reason is that payment terms are not clearly defined in the beginning of a project due to which there remains a scope of ambiguity or confusion. When the execution party thinks it is the right time it is not the same on the other side.

A situation of conflict, confusion and ambiguity can be overcome if following points are taken care of:

1. Clear cut Project Requirements and Scope: A clear scope and set of requirements can help in proper closure of project as and when the scope under target is completed and the requirements are met.

2. Well Defined milestones earmarked for part payments: usually complete payment of the project is divided in different parts. Each part is associated with some success factor of the project, termed as a milestone. A milestone is something distinctly recognizable and ensures that project has reached a substantial progress mark.

3. Business Goals: The purpose and goals of business justifying the purpose of going for the project must be very clear. The benefits anticipated from the deployment of the project might not be drawn immediately during the deployment but the visibility of those must be there in the picture, with clearly measurable means.

4. Payment Terms: Wherever payment terms are connected to subjective achievements. The achievements that are associated with different instalments of payment during the project must be very objective, measurable and demonstrable.

5. Management Satisfaction: Payments are released or put on hold basically on the directions of top management. Top management go by the words of other key members in the frontline or first level management. It is important to understand management goals clearly, define them black and white, and achieve them, before applying for the payment.


March 11, 2012  5:10 PM

Black Spots Hide Well In Dark But Not In Project Task Chart

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project management is not a film development studio that requires complete dark for a good quality of film to take place. Project management can neither be treated as a long tunnel seeking light of the day. Project management has to happen in daylight, in open and with complete team participation.

So if project management is something that cannot be done in an isolated manner, it means that there need to be intelligent experts who are proactive enough to control any volcano or black hole in the making during project lifecycle. No mistakes, no errors and no separate missions in a project must be the sole goal of all members of project team. Immediate addressable process must be in place to identify any gaps, fill it appropriately and finding out the learning out of it.

Basically a project progress must be visible clearly from all angles to all its stakeholders. Every step movement in the project must be marked on the project status chart updated in all manners. The status of project should cover tasks in hand, tasks which should have been completed, tasks to be completed with timelines, tasks that crossed their deadlines and tasks seeking extra attending to get completed as per their targets set by the team.


March 8, 2012  6:28 PM

Composition Of A Project Team

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Any Project team would comprise of various level and expertise carrying people. Expertise is different to technical strength. There might be a non-technical project, for instance, but would require almost equivalent level of expertise as in otherwise. Depending on the nature of project, team composition is formed that initially need some fillers in terms of generating team sense, harmony, respect among each other in a newly started project.

With the help of fillers (which may be people as well as some intellectually designed exercises/ activities) any kind of gaps that start taking shape among team members, it can be ensured that those gaps vanish soon, are short-lived and do not form again. For any composition of project team there need to be a well identification of expertise of people forming the team besides having their functional expertise. Primarily there are three kind of people that govern and drive a project – Game Setters, Strategists and Warriors.

Project Management Team Composition

The number of people in Game Setters category would be very few. They would have a capability of delivering lot of ideas by saying just a few words. They don’t really need to be visible physically, but ensure their presence is being felt throughout the project journey. They are generally trendsetters, leaders, mentors and self-believers.
Strategists are people larger in number and are strong in mind. They strategize winning tactics on the basis of the Game decided by Game Setters.
Warriors are the executioners. They are most front runners, visible, and seemingly the people who are doing most of the work.


March 8, 2012  6:03 PM

Project Execution Management – A Key To Success

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project lifecycle consists of many stages. It starts from Project initiation phase. Although project initiation phase is the formal beginning of a project, actual project related initiations start well prior to that which gradually lead to this stage.

Though every stage of project management has a meaning and importance, it is the Execution Phase that if starts in time, goes well meeting all its milestones within stipulated timeframe and budgets, gets least of jolts and completes its journey successfully; adds a lot of value to overall project success. Every project execution is a new journey, and a new learning. Usually if an already faced issues in any other project, repeats in the current project, it is easy to overcome it, due to already gained learning. But more important is how you manage a first time faced problem.

A well-defined process to face a new problem, document the learning out of it, and making it a repository for other teams to refer to is always helpful. Some kind of benchmarking is important in setting targets for a complete lifecycle of new and old problems, as and when they arise in any ongoing project, plays an important role in PEM (Project Execution Management).

Tackling an existing problem does not ensure that there will be no further issues in the project. Problems come and go, but need to be addressed in a better manner every time as compared to its earlier occurrence if it is a repeated problem. Logically frequent occurring of repeated problems in a project lifecycle if not at all a good sign for any kind of project.


March 4, 2012  3:57 PM

Do You Really Love Project Management

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

There are various means of understanding your level of comfort in project management. You might have done good in managing a single project well in time and budget. You might have managed multiple projects in your career but one at a time. So far so good! But are you good and comfortable in managing multiple projects at the same time running at different pace and different stages.

Are you comfortable in the midst of your triangle where you have your management, your customer and your team at the three corners of the triangle? Imagine yourself tied with elastic strings and the three corners having the control of those strings, your most successful factor lies in not letting your balance go off at any moment of time, and not let any string break off, at the same time.

Balancing is a very important aspect in project management. You need to be a juggler while managing a project or a number of projects.


March 4, 2012  3:46 PM

Ten Areas Where Project Management Is Nothing Without Quality

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project Management itself is a matter of quality. If the methodology is not quality prone, it is going to result into mishaps time to time. Yes, one way of getting 100% success in your projects is simply not to have any targets in sight. Let it go as it tends to go, without putting any extra expectations in it. Otherwise if you are part of current economic crisis hovering around the world; then you must be having tight budgets and timelines to complete your targets and hence you need to inculcate high level of quality levels in managing your projects.

Five areas where you really need to have quality could be:
1. Customer Dealing: If you know how to identify your prospective customer, covert the deal into a long term customer, then you are a winner.
2. Product Range: If you have quality product in your pocket, your efforts are decreased in getting instant nod from your customer to sign a deal.
3. Customer Requirements: You must understand what customer expectations are when the deal is being signed. Customer might not able to tell you all, but you have to have your quality measures to understand its needs.
4. Team Building: There need to be an appropriate team that faces the customer. Each team members must understand the customized manner in which a customer needs to be managed.
5. Product Sizing: Customer might have agreed for a sample product of different size but his actual needs might not fit well in this size. You need to understand the right size of product (be it a service) that will cater to all needs of the customer.


March 4, 2012  3:40 PM

Why Project Management Carries So Much Hype

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Is it that project management is denounced so often; it has become a hyped or rather an overhyped subject in the market. Does it require so many consultants, so much matter and so many companies working to correct your ways of managing projects. As a matter of fact, are those consultants, portals and companies working towards improving your project management style, they having a great level of management of their own projects?

There are two ways of learning and specializing in any field of life and profession. One is to take up any challenges and then learn by means of facing them. Second way is to learn from some experts beforehand jumping into a special task. Former would be a painful process and would also be quite time consuming.

But if everything goes well, it is the first way listed above that will produce the gem of an expert. Second way will no doubt be lesser painful and it will also product an expert in return, but those experts produced by means of method 2 will be limited to their prescribed path only and any expertise required in areas away from their path will lead to a demand of another training from expert. These guys might be lesser prone to take up new and unknown challenges as compared to the first ones.

But does it mean that project management experts keep putting their hands on new techniques so frequently so as to get the flavour of them and analyse the pros and cons out of those techniques so as to find out the best of the deal.


February 26, 2012  7:54 AM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Twelve

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project management is a set of processes and not a tool. Rather it comprises of a number of tools depending on the maturity of an organization in relation to management of projects. It is not mandatory to have tools to manage projects but it is always a boon to have good and effective tools to make your decisions quick and responsive in time.

Tools assist in aligning your goals and targets and somewhat proactively addressing to any road-blockers in the progress of your projects. There has to be a complete sync between your processes, tools and milestones that you want in your projects.

Managing projects efficiently is a great art. Organizations that achieve this art have always an edge over the other organizations struggling


February 26, 2012  7:48 AM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Eleven

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project portfolio management strategy seems to be a heavyweight but actually it is more about managing a project in a scientific manner so that the success can be ascertained well in advance based on the way it behaves during its progress chart growth.

There has to be a Steering Committee, a PMO, and a group of project managers who altogether decide and define the process of management of multiple numbers of projects running the business involving a large number of teams. It is very critical to understand the critical factors that contribute towards the project success. Level of understanding is a good factor to assess the maturity level of the organization managing good amount of projects. It is good to see whether project management is a struggle in the organization or it is so well defined, smooth and easily manageable.

After all everything in the business is cost based. When it is all ok, not much pinpointing is there, but it start happening otherwise thus making the situations much complex and unfriendly.


February 26, 2012  7:44 AM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Ten

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Post implementation stage comes after a project implementation has been executed well and completed. Formally there is a project sign off after which the product is handed over to the key users at customer end. Customer management also ensures that a good amount of confidence has been built in the product users at their end in terms of product awareness and usability. Ultimately if an investment has been done by the management on a product, it is for the sake of making their life better, giving them quick and useful results; thereby resulting into the optimization of business process.

But under the carpet, there is always a lot that remains to be addressed after the project completion. And that is why there has to be a very clear process defined process to manage the support function on the product from a remote location so that no disruption is faced at customer end while using the product or getting desired results out of it.

Rather than customer, it is the product owner, who knows well what all kind of issues arise usually at customer end, once the implementation team returns back and the product becomes the ballgame of end users.


February 26, 2012  7:39 AM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Nine

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project sign off is a stage where customer has to be very cautious, and awake. Product team will always try to convince about the completion of tasks by way of some or the other evidence. That evidence has to be vetted by customer before agreeing to what the product implementation team claims about the product.

In fact a good company while launching their product in phases will always keep their customer attuned regarding achievement of targets and milestones at each stage, putting it on live, and taking sign off from customer for each step.

This way getting a final sign off at a later stage would not take more time, efforts and energy, at both ends.


February 26, 2012  7:34 AM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Eight

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

If any project team assumes or has a functioning style of working in an isolated state, or away from customer (not physically but in terms of involvement and awareness); then probably, the project success would remain a big question mark. Simple reason is that you have your customer requirements drafted well and confirmed by customer, as well. And you get back into your work den to start development in a full blow.

The whole requirements understood are now transferred to development team for taking it further and translating the requirements into product specifications. What if some workflow and templates are built, even if in a document or a presentation, and shared with the customer, will get everyone involved in sync so as to avoid any confusion at a later stage.

It is always better to hang on at this stage, fully take customer’ attention towards what you plan to build, in a detailed manner, and then move ahead.


February 26, 2012  7:28 AM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Seven

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Customer end involvement in a project is as the project requirements and deliverables. Very few project teams in the world exist that are highly professional in understanding customer requirements in first go, define their project specs with crisp mapping with the customer requirements, and then building & delivering the product to customer right in time.

If all this can happen with least involvement of customer, the whole credit goes to the project team. Some credit goes to customer also in this case that a high level of trust was maintained throughout and probably the business requirements were defined so well that there remained to ambiguity or confusion over it.

Usually customer has to get into the project to a large extent, throughout, so as to ensure that it moves on with right pace and direction.


February 25, 2012  7:57 PM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Six

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Development team is not sure about exact business requirements and how the final product would look like but due to high pressure of timelines and targets, they decide to carry on and produce on the basis of whatever they have understood.

Will this save time or would result into serious risk of non-completion of project. Product built in such a manner would result into a half cooked dish which nobody would be able to understand and digest. The development team would not be able to convince about what has been built if they themselves are lacking clarity of what was required and what has been built.

Had it been not better and wise to jot down the requirements even if they were not understood well and then get them vetted by the process owners so as to avoid such dark and directionless situations at a later stage.


February 25, 2012  7:52 PM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Five

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Documentation is not my cup of tea. If you are a project manager and think like this, you are going to have a bad time after some time. Team management, task tracking, milestones, risk assessment, and project management is all what you need to manage all the time.

If you don’t have a proper way of recording your tasks, backlogs, target dates, tasks assigned to various team members, alarm and alert system etc. in place, then you are at high risk.


February 25, 2012  7:49 PM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Four

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

PMO is a controlling hub or facilitation hub – is always a point of debate among project management specialists. Is PMO a group of highly powered people in the organization aimed to take control of all kind of situations in a project? Or is it a group of highly resource rich persons in order to provide all kind of support and assistance to any member of the project.

PMO’s role is to take a project out of crisis? Or proactively ensure not to let project getting into any kind of crisis. Both kinds exist, and work. One situation is opening of umbrella when it starts raining; and the second one is working under an umbrella under any kind of weather conditions.

Does it take more out of life of umbrella if it is overly used or does it make an umbrella jammed if not opened and used for long.

And then there are those kind of third category of people who know before getting out of house that it is going to rain – but don’t bother to pick up the umbrella. They might be some special kind of people able to manage any kind of situation even under high level of resource crunch.


February 25, 2012  7:45 PM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Three

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Can a project run without a project manager? There are two ways of looking at it. One – the ship is so strong in technical aspects that it does not require a captain; and another – the boat is in so bad shape that whether it has a rower or not – does not matter.

Well there is no project in real life that can not be revived back from its doomed shape. If there is a way out for coming out of a bad situation, it need to be thought of and worked out instead of leaving all hopes and lay down all your weapons.


February 25, 2012  7:38 PM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario Two

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

A project team decided to run the complete project lifecycle – initiation, development and deployment – without any involvement of a quality person. Does it mean the project team is totally ignorant about the quality factor in a project? Or does it mean that they are overconfident about managing the quality part on their own without engaging any quality specialist in the project.

Or it could mean that they have already been doing it in the same manner and have been quite successful in their past.

There could be a third angle to it. The project team itself comprising of dual specialists in each role. Meaning thereby, that the development team is specialist in two aspects – development and quality. And the same implies to each and every member of the team – doing whatever role – is a quality expert besides being expert in his/ her running role.


February 25, 2012  7:27 PM

Twelve Project Scenarios: Scenario One

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project manager is too technical and less business savvy. In today’s world is it possible for a project manager to be highly tech savvy but lack in business knowledge of the domain or vertical in which he is assigned to run the project successfully.

It is possible, if it is too technical a project in which very less business domain knowledge is required. Something like setting up of a data center for a rubber producing company. Here the technical knowledge of the project manager in such projects will be highly important. It does not matter whether the project manager knows anything about rubber industry or not.

But same thing does not imply in all cases. If it is required to set up a data center for a media company or a call center, it is very important to understand the business needs as this would be a unique case for the project manager.


January 28, 2012  1:54 PM

Scope Creep Can Turn Your Whole Project Into Creep

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Based on a report published on a research site, scope creep is one of the biggest culprits responsible for failure of project. Scope creep is nothing but shortfalls in the requirement gathering from customer during the customer requirement documentation phase of the project. It is quite relevant to a wrong map in your hands will never be able to land you in right destination.

Howsoever clearly designed map you have in your hand, with clearly defined paths and directions, but if it is wrong map, if will certainly never let you reach the desired destination. Probably a small shortfall in the requirement specifications could lead to a huge gap in acquiring the goal within stipulated budget and timeframe. Extrapolated budgets and schedules do not lead to internal or external satisfaction of the stakeholders in a project. It impacts hard on all fronts and thereby resulting into disharmony and loss in involvement of stakeholders in ongoing project.

It is not that a risk can’t be mitigated. But before going for a mitigation plan, it is important to understand the level and severity of risk. Once you understand the gravity of a risk, it becomes easy to hit its causes and put all efforts in mitigating the risk.

Any risk and its mitigation cost – directly or indirectly – and put its negative impact on the performance of a project. Therefore it is always better to leave a scope of higher amount of risks in your project.


January 28, 2012  1:12 PM

An International Research Group Says only 15 Out of 100 Projects Face Success

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

As per a report published by Info-Tech Research Group, in last two years there is a meagre 15 percent of organization across the globe that have been able to finish projects within the projected limits of time, budget and scope. It is really good to see that somewhere some group is able to achieve with some proven or innovative kind of strategy, philosophy and tools. But it is bad that the percentage is too low.

Why is it not possible for all projects to have a good ending meeting all desired targets and achieving a high level of success? This research report identifies four major buckets that cause project failures. It also helps in identifying those four categories of failure traps and how to prevent getting into those traps.

There are different ways of looking at it. You start a big project, follow some preset methodology by forming a strong team and adhere to your plans. Success usually doesn’t come by fluke. It involves a big amount of every step introspection and team discussions. It never happens that everything goes as per plan. Some failures, hiccups or roadblocks do arise but that doesn’t mean that this is the end of road.

A proper management and mitigation of internal and external opposing forces paves a smooth path for project roadmap and ultimately a grand success. At the end of the day what matters most is where do you decide to fall in during your project life-cycle – in a small chunk of 15% successful companies or the other side.


January 26, 2012  6:07 PM

How Much Sales Pitch Is Required In Project Manager

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Sales department is the one that brings in the business for any organization. Most of the sales start with leads and cold calls which gradually transform into hot calls, though not all. Once customer show willingness towards product, sales team pushes the lead to techo-team so as to educate customer about the technical details of the product and overall cost impact on the solution desired by customer.

After signing of the contract it is the project team that starts managing the customer. Once specs are defined, during project initiation phase, when customer requirements are studied and understood in detail, it is taken over by the development team. One entity that is project manager has to continuously keep a track of project progress and health; be it at any stage in any of the phases. Project manager is the longest phase window to customer. Project manager in a way is front office of the organization to face the customer front during project lifecycle, with no doubt, a good amount of team members at the back end engaged in various amount of tasks.

There are ups and downs during any project, and there are a number of doubts, queries and questions raised by the customer which have to be faced by project manager. It is the sales pitch in project manager that has to come handy during these interactions with customer. Even if grass has not grown as per expectations, project manager has to convince customer that it has started growing, and is all green.


January 24, 2012  5:32 PM

Five Deadly Sins Of PMO

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

PMO comprises of the core members of project management responsible to drive project in right direction under all kind of opposing situations. It is responsibility of PMO to ensure that project has to meet all milestones in project timeframe so as to reach to its final destination of success. Any risks arising during project lifecycle need to be understood well in advance by PMO with an immediate course of action to mitigate those risks so that the project does not deviate from its path of success.

Still there are many mistakes done by PMO that lead a project in wrong directions resulting into a big disaster. Some of those serious mistakes could be:

1. Start with a big bang and then lose the track: A high noise is created to start the project but it is so loud that the actual essence of project gets lost.

2. High Speed but without real sense of directions: There is high level of meetings and plans but all teams working 180 degrees to each other. What it means is that there could be some alignment in some teams among various present in the project but overall resultant comes out to be negative.

3. Rewards: Give big rewards to team/ members for smaller achievements thereby creating a big amount of disharmony among team members overlooked for serious achievements and hence a downgrade in momentum and tempo.

4. Respect Customer: Respect customer blindfolded, so much so, that unreal demands are accepted.

5. No Controls and Checks: There might be some there on papers but not in reality, hence creating a big chaos.


January 24, 2012  5:18 PM

Do You Make Your Apple Tree Project Bear Poisonous Fruits

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

We all are human beings. Projects are made to be driven not only by human beings but it implies to all living world. Project comprise of deadlines, targets, follow-ups, meetings, team creation, team management, and so on. An apple plant has a target to bear apples when it grows into a tree. How does it know that it has to bear apples and not some other fruit?

What drives an apple tree to bear apples is an amazing topic to introspect. The same water, air, sunlight and other natural ingredients that go into a weed plant go into a plant borne to bear fruits. Is it bound of any compulsions of others wishes to bear any other kind of fruit, if it is an apple tree. What it means is that the tree decides on its own that it has to bear what kind of fruit. Or rather it is the seed that designs the complete project plan of plant growing to tree and bearing large amount of fruit, which is apple in our case.

What does it implies? It implies that if a good quality of seed, which can be correlated to project initiation plan, it can never give any chances of failures during its complete lifecycle. The air, water, soil, sunlight in this case is various teams that are formed to be part of project team. It is now the responsibility of these teams to ensure that the seed grown with a high amount of responsibility grows at the desired pace and bear the right kind of fruits, in right time.


January 22, 2012  5:17 PM

Five Ways to Ensure Project Failure

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

There are ways to make a project successful and more number of ways to find out excuses for failures. There is no project that does not encompass of showstoppers, critical or serious issues. Most of the senior team members are always prepared to come across any unwanted or untoward issues arising of a project and finding out suitable measures to overcome them. The top most priority of core project team is to take care of such untoward incidents and ensure a proper mitigation of such risks.

There are ways to ensure a project go fail and gradually you can get accustomed to it where no extra effort shall be required to do so. The top few ways can be listed as below:

1. Overlook troubles and hiccups in a project and thus find no ways out to recover through them.

2. Make no plans and if someone else does that effort, never take it seriously. It is not mandatory to adhere to the timelines marked in the plan.

3. No plans will also ensure no monitoring, follow ups, alerts etc. thereby making your life smooth and hiccups free.

4. Don’t rely on your people or processes to make it successful. Don’t let your team be guided in right direction to make a project successful. Also ensure no good processes in place to take people in right direction.

5. Never give a priority to your customer. Lead your product’s development in 180 degrees rather than in alignment of customer requirements.

There are more ways than mentioned above. It is not difficult for you to find out in real world.


January 21, 2012  6:14 PM

What Is The Carbon Footprint Of Your Project

Jaideep Khanduja Jaideep Khanduja Profile: Jaideep Khanduja

Project execution comprises of various efforts done by team members. This becomes a pool of energy moving in the direction of making a project successful. More collated form of energies generates higher chances of success of their efforts.

Right form of energy in right direction at right moment of time with right level of thrust returns higher chances of success in its goals. Logical right mix of team member leads to timely completion of project tasks. An individual, a team, a project; all have their specific carbon footprint. What factors would mainly contribute in determination of carbon footprint of a project. Let us try indicating few of them as below:

1. overshooting budgets and expenses
2. delayed decisions
3. missed targets, deadlines and milestones
4. team losing focus, tempo, momentum and goals
5. No Learning from mistakes

All points listed above if go in affirmative direction, will lead to a higher level of carbon footprint in the project. The same can be reduced by negating the points mentioned above.


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