PowerShell for Windows Admins


March 4, 2017  5:59 AM

Modifying AD users in bulk

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Active Directory, Powershell

Modifying AD users in bulk involves either setting one or more properties to the same value for a set of users or reading in the values you need from a data source of some kind.

We prepared some test data in the last post so lets see how we use it.

$users = Import-Csv -Path .\users.csv
foreach ($user in $users){
 Get-ADUser -Identity $user.Id |
 Set-ADUser -Division $user.Division -EmployeeNumber $user.EmployeeNumber
}

The simplest way is to read in the data and store as a collection of objects. Use foreach to iterate through the set of user information. Get-ADUser gets the appropriate AD account which is piped to Set-ADUser. Set-ADUser is a great cmdlet because it has parameters for most of the user properties.

In this case though we know that some of the users don’t have employee numbers. This means a bit more work. Two approaches are possible – use splatting and the parameters used above or use the –Replace option

Lets look at splatting first

$users = Import-Csv -Path .\users.csv  
foreach ($user in $users){
 $params = @{
   Division = $user.Division
   EmployeeNumber = 0
 }
 
 if ($user.EmployeeNumber) {
   $params.EmployeeNumber = $user.EmployeeNumber
 }
 else {
   $params.Remove('EmployeeNumber')
 }
 
 Get-ADUser -Identity $user.Id |
 Set-ADUser @params
}

As before read the user information into the $users variable. Iterate over the users with foreach. Create a hashtable for the parameters and their values. Division is always present so that can be set directly. Employeenumber should be tested and if  present the place holder value should be overwritten with the correct value otherwise Employeenumber is removed from the hashtable.

The user account is found and Set-ADUser sets the correct values. Notice how the hashtable is specified to the cmdlet.

Splatting is a great way to dynamically set the parameters you’re using on a particular cmdlet.

Set-ADUser has an alternative – the –Replace parameter.

$users = Import-Csv -Path .\users.csv 
foreach ($user in $users){
 $params = @{
   division = $user.Division
   employeeNumber = 0
 }
 
 if ($user.EmployeeNumber) {
   $params.EmployeeNumber = $user.EmployeeNumber
 }
 else {
   $params.Remove('EmployeeNumber')
 }
 
 Get-ADUser -Identity $user.Id |
 Set-ADUser -Replace $params
}

This is very similar to the splatting example but instead of splatting the hashtable you use it as the value input to the Replace parameter. If you wrote  out the command it would look like this:

 Set-ADUser –Replace @{division = ‘Division B’; employeeNumber  = 100}

With –Replace you’re using the LDAP names of the properties rather than the GUI or PowerShell name – there are differences for instance surname is sn in LDAP.

Modifying AD users in bulk is straightforward with PowerShell and its relatively easy to deal with missing values if you adopt one of the above ideas. Splatting is probably the easiest in this case.

 

March 3, 2017  1:52 PM

Test data for bulk AD changes

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Active Directory, Powershell

I’ve had a number of questions about changing AD user data in bulk. If you need to do that you need some test data. The specific questions were around setting the Division property and the EmployeeNumber at the same time – but some accounts didn’t have an employee number.

First you need to generate some test data

$count =  1

Get-ADUser -Filter * -SearchBase 'OU=UserAccounts,DC=Manticore,DC=org' |
foreach {
  
  $props = @{
    Id = $psitem.SamAccountName
    Division = ''
    EmployeeNumber = $count
  }


  switch ($count % 3){
    0 {$props.Division = 'Division A'}
    1 {$props.Division = 'Division B'}
    2 {$props.Division = 'Division C'}
  }

  if (-not ($count % 15)){$props.Remove('EmployeeNumber')}
  
  New-Object -TypeName PSObject -Property $props

  $count ++
} |
Export-Csv -Path users.csv –NoTypeInformation

You need a counter variable. Use Get-ADUser to get you test users and pipe to foreach. You can then create a hashtable for the properties – Id = samaccountname, Division is an empty string and EmployeeNumber is set equal to count.

A switch statement is used to modify the division. Modulo 3 on the $count variable can only give values of 0, 1 or 2.

Remove the EmployeeNumber for every 15th account

Create an object. Increment the counter.

Export the objects to a csv file.  You should end up with something like this:

Division   EmployeeNumber Id
--------   -------------- --
Division B 1              DonJones
Division C 2              DonSmith
Division A 3              DonBrown
Division B 4              DonBlack
Division C 5              DonWhite
Division A 6              DonGreen
Division B 7              DonWood
Division C 8              DonBell
Division A 9              DonHarris
Division B 10             DonFox
Division C 11             JamesJones
Division A 12             JamesSmith
Division B 13             JamesBrown
Division C 14             JamesBlack
Division A                JamesWhite
Division B 16             JamesGreen
Division C 17             JamesWood

etc.

Next time I’ll show you how to deal with the missing employee numbers when you modify the AD accounts.


March 1, 2017  6:05 AM

Get-Content and Numbers

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Powershell

A common technique is to put a list of information into a text file and read that using Get-Content. The information is often server names. This works great when the data is strings but breaks down if you’re dealing with numbers.

Lets start with a text file containing some numbers:

PS> Get-Content -Path .\num.txt
1000
109
258
331
699
744
829

Let’s try and sort those numbers:

PS> Get-Content -Path .\num.txt | sort
1000
109
258
331
699
744
829

It may seem that nothing is happening but if you sort descending:

PS> Get-Content -Path .\num.txt | sort -Descending
829
744
699
331
258
109
1000

Things change but not quite in the way that you might think. The data isn’t being sorted numerically its being sorted as strings.

PS> Get-Content -Path .\num.txt | Get-Member


   TypeName: System.String

If you read the help file for Get-Content it states that the cmdlet returns either strings or bytes depending on the content of the file.

So if Get-Content returns strings what can we do if we want to work with the file contents as numbers rather than text.

You have a few choices. You can force a type conversion (known in programming circles as a cast) in a number of ways.

First using the –as operator

PS> Get-Content -Path .\num.txt | foreach {$psitem -as [int]} | sort
109
258
331
699
744
829
1000

That’s more like a numeric sort

You can cut down on the code:

PS> Get-Content -Path .\num.txt | foreach {[int]$psitem} | sort
109
258
331
699
744
829
1000

Or you can use foreach to call  a method on the object

PS> Get-Content -Path .\num.txt | foreach ToInt32($psitem) | sort
109
258
331
699
744
829
1000

You can even use the foreach method on the array that Get-Content creates

PS> (Get-Content -Path .\num.txt).foreach({[int]$psitem})  | sort
109
258
331
699
744
829
1000

The last option is the fastest but is only available on PowerShell 4.0 and above.

Get-Content returns strings but its not difficult to turn them into the numbers you need

 

 


February 24, 2017  4:25 AM

Wanted

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Powershell

Wanted one nice kind PowerShell community member to buy the last lonely ticket for the 2017 PowerShell and DevOps Summit.

That’s right we have one place left. And its definitely the last. if you want it – better hurry.


February 16, 2017  2:24 PM

Get-ADUser doesn’t display all properties

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Active Directory, Powershell

Microsoft’s Active Directory cmdlets have some issues. One of the ones that catches everyone when they start using them is that Get-ADUser doesn’t display all properties.

A default call to Get-ADUser displays a subset of the available properties of the user object:

DistinguishedName : CN=FOX Fred,OU=UserAccounts,DC=Manticore,DC=org
Enabled           : True
GivenName         :
Name              : FOX Fred
ObjectClass       : user
ObjectGUID        : db5a3975-980d-4749-b9c0-48aff9217b2a
SamAccountName    : foxfred
SID               : S-1-5-21-759617655-3516038109-1479587680-1314
Surname           :
UserPrincipalName : FredFox@manticore.org

Even if the properties are empty – such as Givenname and Surname – the property name is displayed. So, how do you get the properties that aren’t part of the default list?

There’s the brute force approach:

PS> Get-ADUser -Identity foxfred -Properties *


AccountExpirationDate                :
accountExpires                       : 9223372036854775807
AccountLockoutTime                   :
AccountNotDelegated                  : False
AllowReversiblePasswordEncryption    : False
AuthenticationPolicy                 : {}
AuthenticationPolicySilo             : {}
BadLogonCount                        : 0
badPasswordTime                      : 0
badPwdCount                          : 0
CannotChangePassword                 : False
CanonicalName                        : Manticore.org/UserAccounts/FOX Fred
Certificates                         : {}
City                                 :
CN                                   : FOX Fred
codePage                             : 0
Company                              :
CompoundIdentitySupported            : {}
Country                              :
countryCode                          : 0
Created                              : 17/11/2016 14:07:13
createTimeStamp                      : 17/11/2016 14:07:13
Deleted                              :
Department                           :
Description                          :
DisplayName                          :
DistinguishedName                    : CN=FOX Fred,OU=UserAccounts,DC=Manticore,DC=org
Division                             :
DoesNotRequirePreAuth                : False
dSCorePropagationData                : {01/01/1601 00:00:00}
EmailAddress                         :
EmployeeID                           :
EmployeeNumber                       :
Enabled                              : True
Fax                                  :
GivenName                            :
HomeDirectory                        :
HomedirRequired                      : False
HomeDrive                            :
HomePage                             :
HomePhone                            :
Initials                             :
instanceType                         : 4
isDeleted                            :
KerberosEncryptionType               : {}
LastBadPasswordAttempt               :
LastKnownParent                      :
lastLogoff                           : 0
lastLogon                            : 0
LastLogonDate                        :
LockedOut                            : False
logonCount                           : 0
LogonWorkstations                    :
Manager                              :
MemberOf                             : {}
MNSLogonAccount                      : False
MobilePhone                          :
Modified                             : 18/11/2016 11:03:02
modifyTimeStamp                      : 18/11/2016 11:03:02
msDS-User-Account-Control-Computed   : 8388608
Name                                 : FOX Fred
nTSecurityDescriptor                 : System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectorySecurity
ObjectCategory                       : CN=Person,CN=Schema,CN=Configuration,DC=Manticore,DC=org
ObjectClass                          : user
ObjectGUID                           : db5a3975-980d-4749-b9c0-48aff9217b2a
objectSid                            : S-1-5-21-759617655-3516038109-1479587680-1314
Office                               :
OfficePhone                          :
Organization                         :
OtherName                            :
PasswordExpired                      : True
PasswordLastSet                      : 17/11/2016 14:07:13
PasswordNeverExpires                 : False
PasswordNotRequired                  : False
POBox                                :
PostalCode                           :
PrimaryGroup                         : CN=Domain Users,CN=Users,DC=Manticore,DC=org
primaryGroupID                       : 513
PrincipalsAllowedToDelegateToAccount : {}
ProfilePath                          :
ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion      : False
pwdLastSet                           : 131238652330182673
SamAccountName                       : foxfred
sAMAccountType                       : 805306368
ScriptPath                           :
sDRightsEffective                    : 15
ServicePrincipalNames                : {}
SID                                  : S-1-5-21-759617655-3516038109-1479587680-1314
SIDHistory                           : {}
SmartcardLogonRequired               : False
State                                :
StreetAddress                        :
Surname                              :
Title                                :
TrustedForDelegation                 : False
TrustedToAuthForDelegation           : False
UseDESKeyOnly                        : False
userAccountControl                   : 512
userCertificate                      : {}
UserPrincipalName                    : FredFox@manticore.org
uSNChanged                           : 78123
uSNCreated                           : 62259
whenChanged                          : 18/11/2016 11:03:02
whenCreated                          : 17/11/2016 14:07:13

Using –properties * returns ALL of the properties of a user. That’s OK if you’re looking at one, or a few users, but becomes a very expensive operation if you’re looking at thousands of user objects.

A more elegant approach is to specify the properties you want:

PS> Get-ADUser -Identity foxfred -Properties EmailAddress, LockedOut, ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion, whenCreated


DistinguishedName               : CN=FOX Fred,OU=UserAccounts,DC=Manticore,DC=org
EmailAddress                    :
Enabled                         : True
GivenName                       :
LockedOut                       : False
Name                            : FOX Fred
ObjectClass                     : user
ObjectGUID                      : db5a3975-980d-4749-b9c0-48aff9217b2a
ProtectedFromAccidentalDeletion : False
SamAccountName                  : foxfred
SID                             : S-1-5-21-759617655-3516038109-1479587680-1314
Surname                         :
UserPrincipalName               : FredFox@manticore.org
whenCreated                     : 17/11/2016 14:07:13

You get the properties you specified and the default properties.

So, while Get-ADUser doesn’t display all properties you can overcome this by using the –properties parameter with a * for all properties or a list of the properties you want in addition to the defaults.


February 11, 2017  8:57 AM

Filtering of Objects and Properties

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Powershell

Saw a post on the forum today that suggests people are still confused about how to perform filtering of objects and properties in PowerShell.

As with so much in PowerShell explanations are always better with examples.

Let’s start with the physical disks in a computer:

PS> Get-PhysicalDisk

FriendlyName               SerialNumber    CanPool OperationalStatus HealthStatus Usage            Size
------------               ------------    ------- ----------------- ------------ -----            ----
Toshiba USB 2.0 Ext. HDD   WD-WCAMR3209671 False   OK                Healthy      Auto-Select 298.09 GB
ST916082 1A                DEF10E8D9B36    False   OK                Healthy      Auto-Select 149.05 GB
Samsung SSD 840 PRO Series S1AXNSAF329511V False   OK                Healthy      Auto-Select 476.94 GB

If you want to objects that match a specific criteria – for instance disk is larger than 300GB:

PS> Get-PhysicalDisk | Where-Object Size -gt 300GB

FriendlyName               SerialNumber    CanPool OperationalStatus HealthStatus Usage            Size
------------               ------------    ------- ----------------- ------------ -----            ----
Samsung SSD 840 PRO Series S1AXNSAF329511V False   OK                Healthy      Auto-Select 476.94 GB

Where-Object is your friend.

What you’re actually doing – though very few people actually write it like this – is

Get-PhysicalDisk | Where-Object -Property Size -GT -Value 300GB

The help file for Where-Object lists the possible operators.

You can also show the original style syntax

Get-PhysicalDisk | Where-Object -FilterScript {$_.Size -gt 300GB}

Normal usage is to not write the –FilterScript parameter so it becomes

Get-PhysicalDisk | Where-Object {$_.Size -gt 300GB}

$_ represents the object currently on the pipeline. If you need to use multiply conditions in your filter you’ll need to use the older style syntax.

So far you’ve seen how reduce the number of objects on the pipeline. Where-Object filters out those that don’t match the given criteria.

If you want to reduce the number of properties that the objects on the pipeline possess you’ll need to use Select-Object

PS> Get-PhysicalDisk | Select-Object -Property FriendlyName, HealthStatus, Size

FriendlyName               HealthStatus         Size
------------               ------------         ----
Toshiba USB 2.0 Ext. HDD   Healthy      320072933376
ST916082 1A                Healthy      160041885696
Samsung SSD 840 PRO Series Healthy      512110190592

More commonly written as

Get-PhysicalDisk | Select FriendlyName, HealthStatus, Size

PowerShell best practice is always to use the full cmdlet and parameter names in your scripts. The *-Object cmdlets and in particular Where-Object, Sort-Object and Select-Object are often abbreviated to Where, Sort and Select and the parameters only used where necessary.  This was the way I was advised to use them by Jeffrey Snover – who invented PowerShell –  when I wrote PowerShell in Practice. Good enough for me.

 

 


February 9, 2017  10:56 AM

PowerShell Summit 2017 – – more seats available

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Powershell

After selling out in record time we’ve managed to squeeze a few more seats in after discussion with the conference centre.

Those seats are live now.

They are very definitely, the absolute last set of seats we’ll be able to add this year.

First come – First served. When they’re gone – they’re gone


February 9, 2017  5:43 AM

POwerShell Summit 2017 – sold out

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Powershell

We sold the last seat for the 2017 Summit – https://eventloom.com/event/home/summit2017 yesterday.

If, and its a very big if, more seats become available we’ll notify you though the event web site and on powershell.org


February 1, 2017  2:14 PM

PowerShell on Linux installs

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Linux, Powershell

PowerShell on Linux installs are now easier as you can use the Linux package management tools to download and update PowerShell Core 6.0

Details from https://blogs.msdn.microsoft.com/powershell/2017/02/01/installing-latest-powershell-core-6-0-release-on-linux-just-got-easier/


January 31, 2017  2:17 PM

Append data to a file

Richard Siddaway Richard Siddaway Profile: Richard Siddaway
Powershell

A question on the forums – the user wanted to append data to a file. This is a common scenario when you’re creating a log file.

There’s 2 easy ways to do this.

Lets create a couple of variables with multi-line data

PS> $data = @’
>> This is
>> multiline data
>>
>> ‘@
PS> $data
This is
multiline data

PS> $data2 = @’
>> This is
>> more multiline
>> data
>> ‘@
PS> $data2
This is
more multiline
data

First you could use Out-File

PS> Out-File -FilePath of.txt -InputObject $data
PS> Out-File -FilePath of.txt -InputObject $data2 -Append
PS> Get-Content -Path of.txt
This is
multiline data

This is
more multiline
data

First time you call Out-File you don’t have to use –Appemd but you can. On subsequent calls use -Append to add the data – if you don’t the file will be overwritten with the new data.

Second option is one you don’t see so much – Add-Content. In earlier versions of PowerShell this was your only option

PS> Add-Content -Path ac.txt -Value $data
PS> Add-Content -Path ac.txt -Value $data2
PS> Get-Content -Path ac.txt
This is
multiline data

This is
more multiline
data

If the file doesn’t exist Add-Content will create it.

Two ways to append data to a file


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