I’m going to be creating, using and discarding a number of VHDs for my diskpart and PowerShell series. When I have a number of them mounted I want a quick way to dismount them. Assuming I consistently keep them in the same folder then this very nicely does the job
Get-ChildItem -Path C:\test\ -Filter *.vhdx | Dismount-VHD
Why does it work?
Because Get-ChildItem emits System.IO.FileInfo objects that have a Path property and Dismount-VHD accepts pipeline input for the Path of the VHD to dismount:
Specifies one or more virtual hard disk files for which the corresponding virtual hard disks are to be dismounted.
Default value none
Accept pipeline input? true (ByValue, ByPropertyName)
Accept wildcard characters? false
Last time we created a virtual disk and mounted it. In this post we’ll initialize the disk and create a volume.
Start by remounting the disk
Get-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx | Mount-VHD
You can now initialize the disk:
Initialize-Disk -Number 1
Create a partition:
New-Partition -DiskNumber 1 -DriveLetter F –UseMaximumSize
Ignore the message about formatting as you want to control that:
Format-Volume -DriveLetter F -FileSystem NTFS -Confirm:$false –Force
Your new disk is ready to use.
The diskpart equivalents can be found here: https://technet.microsoft.com/en-us/library/cc766465(v=ws.10).aspx
You can perform the creation and formatting of the disk in one pass:
New-VHD -Path C:\test\Test2.vhdx -Dynamic -SizeBytes 10GB |
Mount-VHD -Passthru |
Initialize-Disk -PassThru |
New-Partition -DriveLetter G -UseMaximumSize |
Format-Volume -FileSystem NTFS -Confirm:$false –Force
Parameterize the path, size and drive letter and you have a handy function to set up disks
Before we start digging into the diskpart/Storage module functionality we need a disk to practice on. I don’t recommend using your machine’s system disk – bad things will happen.
The Hyper-V module has a New-VHD cmdlet so lets use that to create a disk to play with. The great thing about virtual disks is that you can delete then if everything goes horribly wrong.
There is a New-VirtualDisk cmdlet in the storage module but that works with storage pools. We’ll cover that later in the series.
Lets create a virtual disk:
New-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx -Dynamic -SizeBytes 10GB
You can access the virtual disk using the path
Get-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx
You need to mount the virtual disk before you can work with it
Get-VHD -Path C:\test\Test1.vhdx | Mount-VHD
Once mounted you can use get-Disk to identify the virtual disk
PS> Get-Disk | select Number, FriendlyName, PartitionStyle
Number FriendlyName PartitionStyle ------ ------------ -------------- 1 Msft Virtual Disk RAW 0 Samsung SSD 840 PRO Series MBR
The clue is in the friendly name and that the partition style is RAW.
Next time we’ll look at formatting and partitioning the new drive. For now we’ll just dismount the virtual disk
Dismount-VHD -DiskNumber 1
An attendee at the Summit made the statement that the DiskPart utility didn’t have any equivalent in PowerShell. That’s not strictly true as the storage module provides a lot of functionality that maps to diskpart functionality.
The module contents include:
PS> Get-Command -Module Storage | select name
In this mini series I’m going to go through a number of the diskpart options and show you how to do the same with the Storage module cmdlets.
I’m not sure if all diskpart options are available but it’ll be fun to find out.
The Storage module was introduced with Windows 8/Server 2012.
if you prefer shows a number of cdxml files. This means that the cmdlets are based on CIM classes which you can see at
Get-CimClass -Namespace ROOT/Microsoft/Windows/Storage
These classes aren’t available on versions of Windows prior to Windows 8/Server 2012.
I’ll also have a look at some of these classes to see if there’s anything we can do that isn’t covered directly by the storage module cmdlets.
2017 saw our largest Summit to date. 250 PowerShell fanatics (I use the word advisedly) descended on Bellevue Washington. The conversations had already started when I arrived at the hotel on the Friday night before the Summit!
We had a planning meeting for Summit 2018 on the Saturday. Some good ideas came from the meeting that we’ll share in a little while. If you thought this year was good next year will amaze you.
The Summit opened on Sunday with 3 hour Deep Dives morning and afternoon. During the morning I discovered that the issues Delta airlines were having was causing problems for speakers travelling to the Summit. In the end we only had one speaker unable to reach the Summit. We have a plan to mitigate any future issues with speaker drop outs that we’ll be implementing for Summit 2018 and later (yes we do plan more than a year in advance).
Monday saw the PowerShell team presenting on PowerShell now and in the future with team members showing what they’re working on now!
Tuesday and Wednesday morning saw some amazing standard length sessions and the first outing for the Three Furies of PowerShell – who knows they may appear again sometime.
Wednesday afternoon saw the Community Lightning Demos – everything I’ve heard says it was amazing – I was moderating 2 panel discussions. We also had some longer technical sessions.
I saw a large number of people I recognised from previous Summits. I asked why they came back and consistently received two reasons:
– the high level of the technical content
– the ability to talk to speakers, MVPs, team members and other attendees about their PowerShell problems and get answers to those problems
Be assured we’ve taken those 2 things on board and are committed to preserving those aspects of the Summit.
A huge thanks to the speakers, the PowerShell team and the attendees for making a fantastic Summit. A little while to reflect and catch my breath and then its time to dive into the work for next year
Why do some technologies become widely adopted and others are seemingly abandoned – often without any real testing. What do I mean by abandoned technologies? Things like Server Core for instance. And I suspect that nano server and even containers on windows will follow and become abandoned technologies.
Server Core first appeared in Windows Server 2008! In nearly 10 years of existence how many organisations are utilising Server core to its full potential. Very few in my experience. I suspect many, if not most organisations, don’t use it at all.
Nano server was introduced with Server 2016. Its totally headless and very small footprint. You can pack 100s of them onto a 64GB host. Nano server supports a limited number of roles but if you need a small footprint server to host a web site, host VMs or containers or act as a file server for instance its ideal.
The last thing I suspect may join my list of abandoned technologies is Windows Containers. Again, introduced with Server 2016 containers offer a lightweight route to running your applications. With the ability to easily move containers between machines deployments from development to testing and production become much simpler.
So, why do I think these are abandoned technologies or will become abandoned technologies.
The reason is that the majority of windows administrators don’t want to adopt these technologies. They either actively block them or passively ignore them.
Why does this happen? Look at the three technologies again – none of them have a GUI interface! Until Windows administrators fully embrace remote, automated administration techniques they will remain abandoned technologies.
The day of administrators who can’t, or won’t, automate is ending – slowly but surely the pressures to move to a more automated environment are growing. Maybe it’’ happen soon enough that server core, nano server and windows containers will stop being abandoned technologies.
PowerShell Direct is introduced with Server 2016/Windows 10. it enables you to create a remoting session from the Hyper-V host to a VM using the VM name or ID. I recent discovered a PowerShell Direct failure that I couldn’t explain until now.
Normally you do this:
PS> New-PSSession -VMName w16cn01 -Credential (Get-Credential w16cn01\administrator) Id Name ComputerName ComputerType State ConfigurationName Availability -- ---- ------------ ------------ ----- ----------------- ------------ 1 Session1 W16CN01 VirtualMachine Opened Available
But on one particular machine I was getting this
PS> New-PSSession -VMName w16as01 -Credential (Get-Credential w16as01\administrator) New-PSSession : [W16AS01] An error has occurred which Windows PowerShell cannot handle. A remote session might have ended. At line:1 char:1 + New-PSSession -VMName w16as01 -Credential (Get-Credential w16as01\adm ... + ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ + CategoryInfo : OpenError: (System.Manageme....RemoteRunspace:RemoteRunspace) [New-PSSession], PSRemotin gDataStructureException + FullyQualifiedErrorId : PSSessionOpenFailed
I couldn’t find an explanation for this particular PowerShell Direct failure
I’ve been working with PowerShell v6 and OpenSSH the last few days and I noticed that the PowerShell directory had been removed from the system path by the installation of one of these pieces of software.
W16AS01 had been the first machine I experimented with PowerShell v6/OpenSSH and it was the first to experience this PowerShell direct failure.
I checked W16AS01 and sure enough the PowerShell folder was missing from the system path. Adding the Powershell folder back onto the path (and restarting the machine for luck) then retrying PowerShell Direct gives:
PS> New-PSSession -VMName W16AS01 -Credential (Get-Credential W16AS01\Administrator) Id Name ComputerName ComputerType State ConfigurationName Availability -- ---- ------------ ------------ ----- ----------------- ------------ 1 Session1 W16AS01 VirtualMachine Opened Available
Looks like I’ve found a solution for this particular PowerShell direct failure
IT is littered with acronyms – many of which you can’t remember what it means. This has been explained by recent research that shows there is a maximum number of acronyms that it is possible for one person to remember.
Once you’ve reached your maximum number of acronyms as soon as you try to remember a new one then one of the existing ones will be erased from you memory. The acronym to be erased seems to be selected at random though recent computer models lead researchers to suspect that its inversely proportional to your age and directly proportional to the number of different technologies you’re currently working with.
Your maximum number of acronyms seems to be hardwired on an individual basis and no amount of training seems to be able to modify this number.
If you suspect that you’re reaching your maximum number of acronyms all you can do is make sure that you have a cheat sheet available to use to look up their meaning.
Many IT vendors are actively aiding research in this area as their ability to generate incomprehensible documentation littered with acronyms is severely hindered by this new discovery.
Tried PowerShell v6 yet?
Its the open sourced latest version of PowerShell – runs on Windows, Linux (various flavours) and MacOS
Its available from – https://github.com/PowerShell/PowerShell
Before you get too excited there’s a few things you need to remember:
– its ALPHA code. That means its still under development and subject to change
– its not production ready
– it only provides the core parts of PowerShell – for instance all the CDXML modules aren’t available
– it uses .NET Core rather than full .NET – it doesn’t have the GUI libraries for instance
– it does install side by side with out of the box PowerShell (on later versions of Windows only)
– it does enable remoting between Windows and Linux using SSH
Its worth testing for 2 reasons. First you can see what’s happening with PowerShell and the changes that are coming. Secondly, you can feed back directly to the project and directly influence the future of PowerShell
With one week to go before travelling to Seattle for the 2017 PowerShell & DevOps Summit I’m putting the finishing touches to my presentations and the Summit organisation.
The agenda was published last October but we’ve had to make a few changes recently to cover for speakers that have dropped out. Check out the final version before deciding on the sessions you’ll attend.
We’ve already started planning the 2018 Summit – more details will come later – but we think you’ll like what we’re planning. All your favourite Summit features and more.
If you’re going to the Summit don’t forget to sign up for the Lightning Demos – your chance to speak and share your discoveries.