When it comes to routing traffic between different networks one needs a router. Palo Alto Networks Firewalls are capable of routing the traffic between networks. Palo Alto uses a concept of “Virtual Routers” to route the traffic be it static routing or dynamic routing. Virtual Router uses virtualized or partitioned routing tables to do the routing job. Palo Alto Firewalls uses virtual routers to obtain the routes and uses best route to populates its routing table.
Palo Alto Networks Firewall is capable of supporting Dynamic routing protocols like RIP v2, OSPF ( OSPF v2 and V3) and BGP v4. The Palo Alto Network Firewalls comes with a Virtual router named default which can be used for routing provided the layer 3 interfaces or VLANs are part of that default Virtual router. One can also create a new Virtual Router and name it according to his/her organization standards and use it for both static routing and dynamic routing.
Palo Alto Networks Firewalls does comes with a dedicated out -of-band Management (MGT) Interface which is used to manage the Palo Alto Network Firewalls. By default SSH , HTTPS and ping is enabled to manage the Palo Alto Network Firewalls, apart from dedicated out-of-band management interface one can use any Layer 3 interface for the management of the Palo Alto Network Firewalls.
In order to manage the Palo Alto Network Firewalls using a Layer 3 interface one must enable a management profile . In order to configure the management interface follow the below mentioned steps
Network>Network Profiles > Interface Mgmt > Add
Configure the management profile by giving the name you like and select the services you want permit along with the IP address if you want.
Assign the Management Profile to any Layer 3 interface from where you want to manage the Palo Alto Networks Firewall as shown below.
Network>Interfaces>Ethernet> ethernet1/1>Advance>Management Profile
Management Profile is a quite good option, which comes quite handy when you want to allow management functions on any layer 3 interface.
Like any other firewalls, Palo Alto Networks Firewall can be deployed in Layer 2 mode. In a Layer 2 deployment mode, the Palo Alto Networks Firewalls provides switching between two or more networks. In Layer 2 deployment mode, a Vlan must be assigned each interface or Vlan object and additional layer 2 sub interfaces must be assigned to group of interfaces. The Palo Alto Networks Firewall will perform VLAN tag switching when Layer 2 sub interfaces are attached to a common VLAN object.
Palo Alto Networks Firewalls Layer interfaces are only capable of supporting 802.1Q trunks, however they are not capable of supporting any spanning tree protocols (STP) nor do they participate in spanning tree process. Palo Alto Networks Firewalls simply forwards the BPDUs, it receives from the peer Switch.
In past few posts we were talking more about what is Virtual wire? and how it can be implemented. Lets talk briefly about the Virtual wire sub interfaces in this post.
Virtual Wire Sub interfaces are quite useful when one needs to manage traffic in a multi-tenant network setup. It does offer lot of flexibilities in enforcing distinct policies especially when multi-tenant network are in place. Once can easily separate and classify traffic into different zones by using either VLAN tags or VLAN tags in conjunction with IP Classifiers. Yet one more deployment flexibility offered by Palo Alto Networks firewalls.
Configuring Palo Alto Firewall in Virtual Wire mode is quite easy, in this post using below topology I am going to demonstrate how to configure a Palo Alto Networks Firewall in Virtual Wire or V-Wire mode.
You could see from the above topology , we have a laptop with an IP Address 192.168.1.156 in VLAN 20 placed in the trust zone trying to access an internet in the untrust zone. The laptop is configured with a default gateway 192.168.1.1 which happens to the IP address of our Internet Router and this is in untrust zone and belongs to VLAN 1.
We have a Palo Alto Firewall with two interfaces connected to a Cisco Switch. One interface ,ethernet 1/2 connected to interface G1/0/2 in a Cisco Switch , configured as a part of V-Wire with VLAN 20 and this belongs to trust zone.
Where as the Palo Alto Firewall interface ethernet 1/1 is connected to Cisco Switch interface G1/0/1 and is configured as part of V-Wire with Vlan 1 and this belongs to Untrust Zone
Now lets configure the same and see how traffic flows
Step 1 – Configure Cisco Switch for trust zone interfaces with VLAN 20
interface gigabitEthernet 1/0/2
switchport access vlan 20
interface gigabitEthernet 1/0/3
switchport access vlan 20
Step 2 – Configure Cisco Switch for Untrust Zone Interfaces with VLAN 1
interface gigabitEthernet 1/0/1
switchport access vlan 1
interface gigabitEthernet 1/0/4
switchport access vlan 1
Step 3 – Configure Virtual Wire called Test-V-Wire by clicking
Network >Virtual Wire
You can use any name you want ,
In our case we will name Test-V-Wire and interfaces ethernet 1/1 and ethernet 1/2 part of Interface1 and Interface 2
Step 4 – Lets configure two zones names Untrust and Trust and assign ethernet 1/1 to be part of untrust zone and ethernet 1/2 to be part of trust zone.
Step 4 -A – Configure Trust Zone
Give the name Trust, select Type to be Virtual Wire and add the interface ethernet 1/2 to be part of Trust Zone as demonstrated below
Step 4 -B – Configure UnTrust Zone
Step 5 – Create a Security Policy to allow access from trust zone to untrust zone ( This can be configured as per your requirements with security profiles, URL filtering etc)
Give the name to your Security Policy ( V-Wire-Policy)
Add Source Zone ( Trust)
Add Destination Zone ( Untrust)
Allow the access, you can also configure Application policy and Service/URL Category if needed . In our case we are allowing all kind of traffic
The final Security Policy should look like this
You can also monitor the traffic passing through the V-Wire, you can see from the below snapshot I am accessing Skype, pinging the default gateway (Vlan1) from my laptop (Vlan 20) and my traffic is passing from Trust zone to Untrust zone by using the Rule V-Wire-Policy which we created
This is really a great feature from Palo Alto and the Virtual Wire can implemented easily without any modifications to existing network Design.
Cisco has announced a major revamp for their CCIE and CCDE written exams, starting July 26,2016 Cisco will include a new section titled “Evolving Technologies”. Except CCIE Data Center all other CCIE Lab exams remains intact. So those who will be appearing for CCIE and CCDE written exam after July 26,2016 should master the following Evolving technologies domain
1.1: Compare and contrast Cloud deployment models
- Infrastructure, platform, and software services (XaaS)
- Performance and reliability
- Security and privacy
- Scalability and interoperability
1.2: Describe Cloud implementations and operations
- Automation and orchestration
- Workload mobility
- Troubleshooting and management
- OpenStack components
- Network Programmability
2.1: Describe functional elements of network programmability (SDN) and how they interact
- Northbound vs. Southbound protocols
2.2: Describe aspects of virtualization and automation in network environments
- DevOps methodologies, tools and workflows
- Network/application function virtualization (NFV, AFV)
- Service function chaining
- Performance, availability, and scaling considerations
- Internet of Things
3.1: Describe architectural framework and deployment considerations for Internet of Things (IoT)
- Performance, reliability and scalability
- Security and privacy
- Standards and compliance
- Environmental impacts on the network
Looking at the new topics, one can assume how important technologies like cloud, network programmability, Internet of things are. And these topics covers 10% of the total score. Cisco is ensuring that evolving technology does play a vital role in coming days. The new recalibrated exam topics shown below are something which candidates need to focus on.
|Written Exam Topics Used for
Testing BEFORE July 25, 2016
|Written Exam Topics Used for Testing On
July 25, 2016 and Beyond
|CCIE Routing and Switching||Existing exam topics version 5.0||Recalibrated exam topics version 5.1|
|CCIE Wireless||Existing exam topics version 3.0||Recalibrated exam topics version 3.1|
|CCIE Security||Existing exam topics version 4.0||Recalibrated exam topics version 4.1|
|CCIE Service Provider||Existing exam topics version 4.0||Recalibrated exam topics version 4.1|
|CCIE Collaboration||Existing exam topics version 1.0||Recalibrated exam topics version 1.1|
|CCDE||Existing exam topics version 2.0||Recalibrated exam topics version 2.1|
|CCIE Data Center||Existing written exam 350-080 and its corresponding exam topics will be available for candidates who are scheduled to take the test BEFORE July 25, 2016.||The new unified exam topics version 2.0 will be used for the new written exam (400-151) and lab exam and is recommended for candidates scheduled to take the test on July 25, 2016 or beyond.|
I believe it’s a welcome move from Cisco and I could see Cisco wants to capitalize the market by ensuring the new CCIEs are aware of these new evolving technologies at least at some extent. Also I expect Cisco Press will come out with the appropriate study guides and titles.
Yesterday I received an email from Cisco VIRL about their new release of VIRL 1.0.0
Hello VIRL Family! Happy Thanksgiving (if you’re celebrating!)
We are very happy to announce the release of VIRL 1.0.0 – a major upgrade release packed full of new features! 🙂
The VIRL team really surprised their customers with the release of new version especially when we are not expecting any major release from them. The new VIRL release 1.0.0 has some major changes , as Cisco VIRL is moving from Openstack Icehouse to Openstack Kilo. Those who have previous release of VIRL cannot upgrade to the new version. They must have received an email from Cisco with the download link for the new version as Cisco is also stoping the support for VIRL 0.9.293 on 25 December 2015.
The new release contains the following version
- Openstack Kilo
- VM Maestro 1.2.4 Build Dev-363
- AutoNetkit 0.20.9/0.20.22
- Live Network Collection Engine 0.7.20
- VIRL_CORE 0.10.21.7
Platform reference model VMs included in the new release
- IOSv – 15.5(3)M image
- IOSvL2 – 15.2.4055 DSGS image
- IOSXRv – 5.3.2 image
- CSR1000v – 3.16 XE-based image
- NX-OSv 7.2.0.D1.1(121)
- ASAv 9.5.1
- Ubuntu 14.4.2 Cloud-init
Linux Container images included in the new release
- Ubuntu 14.4.2 LXC
- iPerf LXC
- Routem LXC
- Ostinato LXC
Some of the new features which grabbed my attention are as follows
- OpenVPN – allows users to connect from their laptop to their VIRL server.
- Link Latency, jitter and packet-loss controls – Users can now set latency, packet loss and jitter directly on the link.
- Static TCP port allocation controls – Users can now specify the tcp port numbers they wish to when connecting to the console, auxiliary or monitor port of a particular node in their simulation.
- Web Editor – User can run an ALPA release of topology design tool which can be run within a web-browser.
- VM Maestro Java Runtime Environment bundled – Users don’t need to install the java to use VM Maestro
- VM Maestro active canvas
One can also capture a packet in the newly released VIRL. More details can be accessed from the VIRL community portal.
We all know Palo Alto Network Firewalls offers quite flexibility deployment options, one can also deploy Palo Alto Networks in Virtual Wire or V-Wire mode. This is the beauty of Palo Alto Networks Firewalls , the flexibility it offers cannot be matched by some of the leading firewall vendors. Though other vendors offers the same feature better known as transparent firewalls.
Virtual Wire mode can be deployed by pairing a set of two physical interfaces into a single set and in V-Wire mode one does not needs to assign either an IP Address or a mac address. Virtual Wire is also referred to as a “Bump in the Wire” of “Transparent In-Line”. By default certain Palo Alto Networks Firewalls comes with preconfigure Virtual Wire mode and Ethernet ports 1 and 2 are part of that default V-Wire.
These kinds of deployment comes very handy, especially when one does not wants to do any kind of switching or routing and simply wants to plug and play with the Palo Alto Networks firewall. The biggest value Palo Alto Networks offers in Virtual Wire mode is, it supports features like App-ID, decryption , Content-ID , User-ID and NAT by using all these features one can certainly inspect the traffic passing through Virtual Wire and can apply the security policy. In upcoming post lets configure a Palo Alto Firewall in Virtual -Wire Mode and see how it works.
In one my recent post we discussed what is TAP mode in Palo Alto Networks Firewall and the flexibility it offers when it comes to deployment.
I have a Palo Alto Networks Firewall 3050 connected to a Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switch and I am using the following topology to demonstrate TAP configuration. As you can see the Laptop is connected to Cisco switch on port no G1/0/8 and the Palo Alto Firewall is connected to Cisco Switch port G1/0/1 . We will configure a SPAN in Cisco Switch and our source will be G1/0/8 ( Laptop) and the destination will be G1/0/1 ( Connected to Palo Alto Firewall). Basically we will monitor all the traffic from the host Laptop towards Internet. You can also configure RSPAN the principle remains the same.
Lets configure SPAN in Cisco Catalyst Switch using following CLI commands
monitor session 1 source interface gigabitEthernet 1/0/8 both
monitor session 1 destination interface gigabitEthernet 1/0/5
Configure Ethernet 1/5 as TAP mode by going to Network -> Interface -> ethernet1/5 -> Interface Type and select Tap
Assign a Security Zone to ethernet 1/5 as with out this we cannot create Security Rule to monitor the traffic
Name : Name of the zone you want -> Type : Should be TAP and add ethernet 1/5 to be part of new Zone you are creating as shown
Create a Security policy so that we can monitor the traffic in the logs tab and can also see the details in ACC tab, without configuring the Security Policy one cannot monitor the traffic spanning through the Palo Alto Network Firewall in TAP mode. Ensure that the rule is at the top and both the source zone and destination zone are same as demonstrated below
Policies -> Security -> Add
You can use any name you want
Add Source Zone – In our case its TAP_ZONE
Add Destination Zone – In our case its TAP_ZONE
Allow the traffic and click ok and commit to save the policy
You final policy should be like this
One can now see what kind of traffic is passing through the Palo Alto Network Firewall in TAP mode
Monitor -> Logs -> Traffic
Also one see more details like the risk level and what application are accessed in Application Command Center (ACC)
So far I have never experience such a granular report offered by any firewalls. This kinds of value added features obliviously makes Palo Alto Networks Firewall a leader in Next Generation Firewall.
Cisco Certification Tracking Tool is not working since almost a week , looks a like some major compromise happened with this portal. Once you login to any of the tracking sites you will some of these errors
Cisco also published a blog about this outage, well its quite unfortunate that an unauthorized third party placed malware on their Credential Manager System, which supports this Cisco Certifications Tracking System. Until this issue is fixed no one can verify Cisco Certifications.
I hope Cisco will fix this and have a permanent fix for this issue.