They can be either depending on how you do it.
Pass Through queries [harking back to MS Access] are where code is executed directly against the database using for example a Connection object to execute SQL strings.
Direct access is when you work with an ADO recordset that you instantiate, manipulate and send back to the database [If required].
Hope this helps/makes sense :)
Last Wiki Answer Submitted: May 27, 2004 6:33 am by Mattaux0 pts.