You can try looking in the msdb.dbo.MSagentparameterlist table. This table holds the parameters for the replication agents. Within this table you should be able to find the databases which have replication going to them.
Unless you are using Merge replication that appears to be all you will be able to get from the Subscriber. It appears that the information about the replication is not stored within the subscriber. You will need to connect to the distributor to get this information. Within the Distribution database you can look at the table MSarticles.