Yes and no. i5/OS has two optionally installable components — Qshell and PASE — that many sites install as standard options nowadays. Qshell is the ‘native’ shell and can be entered with the STRQSH (or simply QSH) command. PASE is an AIX run-time environment that supports AIX binaries and supplies a few different shells, e.g., Korn, Bourne, and C shells. Basic access is via an easy API call — CALL QP2TERM.
PERL can be obtained — IBM Porting Central for System i. Note that Zend Core for i5/OS — PHP development and production environment for i5/OS — is discussed on the same page.
Lots of IBM documentation is available. And plenty of internet help is out there.