open system interconnection is devloped by internation org. in 1977 for eazy way to know about computer infastrcture.its work on one by one.
There are two basic types of networking models: protocol models and reference models.
A protocol model provides a model that closely matches the structure of a particular protocol suite. The hierarchical set of related protocols in a suite typically represents all the functionality required to interface the human network with the data network. The TCP/IP model is a protocol model because it describes the functions that occur at each layer of protocols within the TCP/IP suite.
A reference model provides a common reference for maintaining consistency within all types of network protocols and services. A reference model is not intended to be an implementation specification or to provide a sufficient level of detail to define precisely the services of the network architecture. The primary purpose of a reference model is to aid in clearer understanding of the functions and process involved.
The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model is the most widely known internetwork reference model. It is used for data network design, operation specifications, and troubleshooting.
Although the TCP/IP and OSI models are the primary models used when discussing network functionality, designers of network protocols, services, or devices can create their own models to represent their products. Ultimately, designers are required to communicate to the industry by relating their product or service to either the OSI model or the TCP/IP model, or to both.
The first layered protocol model for internetwork communications was created in the early 1970s and is referred to as the Internet model. It defines four categories of functions that must occur for communications to be successful. The architecture of the TCP/IP protocol suite follows the structure of this model. Because of this, the Internet model is commonly referred to as the TCP/IP model.
Most protocol models describe a vendor-specific protocol stack. However, since the TCP/IP model is an open standard, one company does not control the definition of the model. The definitions of the standard and the TCP/IP protocols are discussed in a public forum and defined in a publicly-available set of documents. These documents are called Requests for Comments (RFCs). They contain both the formal specification of data communications protocols and resources that describe the use of the protocols.
The RFCs also contain technical and organizational documents about the Internet, including the technical specifications and policy documents produced by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)