Sadly, given such a short question, with no apparent clue as to what you’re actually looking for – an answer which covers all the areas under your question would be too large to post here. I certainly hope that this is not a school or training question.
I recommend that you spend some time at the SANS reading room (URL below). They have a wealth of white papers on various security subjects. Once you’ve read some of those, you should be able to ask a more precise question. There are many books on the subject as well, but the SANS reading room will give you a good start – for free!