Tables that are partitioned (and tables that aren’t for that matter) should be able to be accessed by hundreds, thousands or tens of thousands of users at any one time.
How many rows in the table are there?
You’ll want as many CPUs are you can put in the machine. You’ll also want lots of very fast hard drives.
Typically tables which are partitioned have 1 Billion+ records in there, and you partition so that you can control which data is on the fastest disks, and which data is on the slowest disks.
If you are just trying to put the most possible disks under the table, then put the table into its own file group and create files for that filegroup on lots of different RAID arrays. SQL Server will automatically balance the data across the files in the filegroup.
Before I can give any specific recommendations I’ll need MUCH more information about the server in question.