Your kind of in a bad way here. I bet if you turn the lights out, turn on a lamp, hold the cd up to the lamp with the bottom of the disk facing the lamp, you will see a tiny speck of light coming through it. The most important side of a label is actually the side with the label on it. The data is written on the underside of the label on a foil sheet.
If the table of contents aren’t the part that’s messed up, you might be able to get away with this.
Try coping the files to the hard drive in small groups. If one file fails in the group all the rest in the group after that will fail. Skip that file and begin the next small group with the file after the bad one. You should be able to get all of the undamaged data with this method. The you can copy the files from the hard drive back to a new cd.
Trying to get data from the damaged files is way complex.