i dont think you could limit this in any fashion except through acrobat standard/professional, the reader is just reading the document so it doesnt place a lock on it like office would with a word doc
PDF does not have that capability. You would need to host it on either a web-based system (IIS/Apache) which max connection set to 1. You can attempt to host that on a file system on the network based on Windows 2008. On sharing this folder where the PDF resides, set the “limit the number of siimulataneous users to” value to 1. This should give you the single access you desire.