An Ethernet cable and a patch cable can be the same thing but the later is usually shorter to “Patch” in from your patch panel to your switch.
Straight through is in reference to a cable being NORMAL instead of a CROSS OVER (Crossed Pairs)
Ethernet cable= type of cable.
Straight Cable (Patch)= This is the standard for Ethernet cables. This cable is used when connecting a pc or a router or such
Cross-over cable= this is used for 2 devices of the same type to communicate together. Example, A PC to PC> configured manually can communicate on the same network together.
If your question is based off of a scenario then just post and I can assist with more detailed information.