Is there a listener running? Have you run the NETCA program to configure and start the listener?
You need to set LISTNER.ORA, SQLNET.ORA and TNSNAMES.ORA files to get rid of this error.
All of the above files will be under <ORACLE_HOME>\NETWORK\ADMIN folder.
This might help you also.
Protocol adapter error solution.
ORA-12560: TNS: protocol adapter error
Cause: A generic protocol adapter error occurred.
Action: Check addresses used for proper protocol specification. Before reporting this error, look at the error stack and check for lower level transport errors. For further details, turn on tracing and re-execute the operation. Turn off tracing when the operation is complete.