As long as it was compiled with some some level of debug information, yes. Ideally (without source), DBGVIEW(*LIST) would be far better than DBGVIEW(*STATEMENT).
For ILE, use DSPPGM and either page forward to the *MODULE detail or specify DETAIL(*MODULE) to see if debug data was left in the *PGM object. For OPM, it’s not so easy to see if debug data exists, but you can use DMPOBJ to learn a lot about what’s left in the object.
And for OPM or ILE, you might simply use STRDBG against the program to see if a debug view is presented. (For OPM, be sure to specify the OPMSRC(*YES) parameter.