IT Governance, Risk, and Compliance


July 13, 2012  11:50 PM

IT Hardware Redundancy Checks Using Parity Bits – Part II

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

How electronically encoded bits become redundant

Generation of extra bits for a redundancy check is derived from the relevant data and, therefore, bears a logical relationship to the data. This logical relationship is only a control association and has no modifying effect on the data. When datum is transferred, or some operation is performed on the datum, the extra bits remain attached to the datum.

Error detection is accomplished by the computer recalculating the redundancy check value utilizing the logical relationship. If there has been no mechanical problem, electronic malfunction or transmission corruption; the recalculation and the original should have the same value. A difference between the two calculations would indicate that data has been lost or changed during task performance.

 

Sources:

Davis, Robert E. IT Auditing: Assuring Information Assets Protection. Mission Viejo, CA: Pleier Corporation, 2008. CD-ROM.

Gleim, Irvin N. CIA Examination Review. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. Gainesville, FL: Accounting Publications, 1989. 283-4

Watne, Donald A. and Peter B. B. Turney. Auditing EDP Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984. 227-30

View Part I of the IT Hardware Redundancy Checks Using Parity Bits series here

 

Post Notes: “IT Hardware Redundancy Checks Using Parity Bits – Part II” was originally published through Suite101.com under the title “IT Hardware Redundancy Checks Using Parity Bits”.

 

July 10, 2012  11:51 PM

IT Hardware Redundancy Checks Using Parity Bits – Part I

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

When properly deployed, parity bits can be utilized to detect communication errors between IT hardware items and enable corrective measures. Specifically, redundancy checks are a method of inspecting for errors in IT processing. The application of error detection as well as correction utilizes the principle of redundancy to ensure data reliability and integrity. Commonly, hardware related redundancy checks are established by attaching a single bit or set of bits to an electronically encoded number, character, word or block of datum for the purpose of detecting and possibly correcting errors.

 

Sources:

Davis, Robert E. IT Auditing: Assuring Information Assets Protection. Mission Viejo, CA: Pleier Corporation, 2008. CD-ROM.

Gleim, Irvin N. CIA Examination Review. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. Gainesville, FL: Accounting Publications, 1989. 283-4

Watne, Donald A. and Peter B. B. Turney. Auditing EDP Systems. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984. 227-30

 

Post Notes: “IT Hardware Redundancy Checks Using Parity Bits – Part I” was originally published through Suite101.com under the title “IT Hardware Redundancy Checks Using Parity Bits”.

 


July 6, 2012  10:32 PM

IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part V

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Automatic retry is employed in data communications by retransmission of erroneous messages. Retransmission is utilized in conjunction with an error-detection technology and can involve the retransmission of a character, word, record, or set of records.

Verifying the adequacy of equipment checks

Ensuring adequate IT hardware controls is a managerial responsibility. Therefore, verification procedures should be performed to permit providing a positive assertion regarding IT hardware reliability and data integrity based, in part, on effective computer equipment checks.

The owner’s inability to provide a positive assertion regarding IT hardware deployment may be caused by lack of equipment checks that impact information integrity. Nevertheless, when inadequate equipment checks are discovered appropriate compensating and/or mitigating hardware controls should be implemented to ensure accurate and complete IT processing.

View Part I of the IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks series here

Post Note: “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part V” was originally published through Suite101.com under the title “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks”


July 4, 2012  1:01 AM

IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part IV

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Automatic retry is also utilized with magnetic tape. Imperfections on the surface of the magnetic tape that interfere with reading or writing can be dislodged by back-spacing the tape and trying again.

Whereas, disc drives utilize automatic retry to facilitate successful read/write operations. Depending on the deployed hardware, the original error-free read/write may fail because the data is slightly misaligned with the designated recording track. To remediate the condition, the read/write operation will be repeated several times at different offset locations until the required action is performed or until it is clear that some other problem is at fault.

View Part I of the IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks series here

Post Note: “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part IV” was originally published through Suite101.com under the title “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks”

 


June 29, 2012  8:34 PM

IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part III

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Correspondingly, the CPU can monitor printer operations to ensure correct print synchronization. This entails the CPU checking print timing to ensure that the image is created when the print device is in the right position.

Lastly, data communication facilities may have cybernetic line and equipment diagnosis. This automatic diagnostic may be part of the communication hardware rather than the CPU.

Forms of automatic retry routines

Automatic retry enables electronic error correction in several situations. It is particularly valuable in the CPU, which is subject to transient error. Transient error, such as a data parity error, may occur because of temporary conditions such as static electricity or random variations in switching times. Since it is likely that such a condition will disappear on its own accord; a simple activity repeat or retry will commonly eliminate the indicted error.

View Part I of the IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks series here

Post Note: “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part III” was originally published through Suite101.com under the title “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks”

 


June 28, 2012  12:00 AM

IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part II

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Forms of automatic error diagnosis routines

Automatic error diagnosis is utilized by several hardware configuration components. A typical application is the installation of Central Processing Unit (CPU) circuitry to diagnosis data parity errors identified in the CPU and linked storage areas. Furthermore, the CPU may have self-diagnostic capabilities to reveal defective circuitry or memory. In some instances, as a corrective measure, the CPU may be able to route operations and storage around defective configuration components.

Automatic error diagnosis is also utilized to identify faulty magnetic tape read/write heads. In this scenario, the CPU checks the read/write head during an assigned task to ensure that the current is flowing through the device. With a positive check, it is assumed that reading and writing is taking place during inspection. Conversely, with a negative check, it is assumed that reading and writing is not taking place during inspection.

View Part I of the IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks series here

Post Note: “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part II” was originally published through Suite101.com under the title “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks”


June 23, 2012  12:00 AM

IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part I

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Collectively, the term IT hardware describes all equipment necessary to enable IT services utilization. Yet, each hardware configuration item may have distinct operational characteristics and controls.

A primary hardware characteristic can be: auxiliary storage, wiring, IT board, input device, or output device. Whereby, the hardware control can be: redundant character checks, duplicate process checks, echo checks, equipment checks, and/or validity checks. Some or all of these controls can be found on two or more types of equipment within the IT infrastructure.

Common firmware programming associated with IT equipment

Regarding equipment checks, controls are generally built into circuitry to ensure that the hardware is functioning properly and, where necessary, to provide cybernetic error correction. Commonly, these capabilities are known as automatic error diagnosis and automatic retry.

Post Note: “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks – Part I” was originally published through Suite101.com under the title “IT Equipment Functionality and Integrity Checks”


June 19, 2012  11:24 PM

Computer Hardware Risks – Part II

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Impact of IT hardware failures on information integrity

Failure of a semiconductor, diode, or transistor may affect the electrical impulses utilized in the processing of data, the storage of data, and the communication of data between different equipment in the IT infrastructure. If the failure leads to a change in timing, strength, shape, or frequency of pluses; the result could be an invalid data operation, invalid data storage or transmission, or the modification or destruction of datum or program instructions.

The failure of a mechanical part is a hazard to the operation of peripheral input/output (I/O) and storage devices. Such a failure can result in an error in reading datum during an input operation or in an error in writing datum during an output operation.

View Part I of the Computer Hardware Risks series here

Post Note: “Computer Hardware Risks – Part II” was originally posted on my Suite101.com web page under the title “Computer Hardware Risks”


June 15, 2012  9:31 PM

Computer Hardware Risks – Part I

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Some data processing specialist believe that it is unnecessary to devote much attention to hardware deployments. According to this school of thought, modern computer hardware is designed to be very resilient, and most of them have built in protection mechanisms. Consequently, control professionals should encounter effective hardware configurations. In actual practice, however, several factors can reduce IT hardware effectiveness and efficiency.

Common types of IT hardware risk

IT errors may occur due to failures in IT hardware configuration items. Specifically, errors may occur because of a failure in an electronic element or in a mechanical part of computer equipment. The risk to management from weaknesses in hardware controls is considerable because of their pervasive influence on information integrity.

Post Note: “Computer Hardware Risks – Part I” was originally posted on my Suite101.com web page under the title “Computer Hardware Risks”


June 12, 2012  9:46 PM

What Every IT Manager Should Know About Service Delivery and Support – Part XII

Robert Davis Robert Davis Profile: Robert Davis

Audit professionals have a significant role in supporting an adequate control environment when providing contributions to strategic, tactical, and operational value through governance improvement recommendations. Consistent with entity oversight responsibilities, board of directors should insist on utilizing perceptive IT auditors to permit control environment enrichment. In particular, an entity’s audit committee should proactively ensure IT service delivery and support are subject to periodic audits, reviews, as well as agreed-upon procedures by highly qualified auditors so individuals responsible for governance can advance entity oversight goals with IT enhancement triggers. Furthermore, a robust IT audit function can usually render superior performance when requested to assist management with operational control issues that may arise.

Lastly, external factors often influence an entity’s environment. Specific external influencers affecting an entity’s ability to achieve objectives include: economics, communities, governments, technologies, competitors, suppliers, and customers. Therefore, it is crucial that the external environment be accurately assessed prior to proceeding with a course of action impacting the entity’s system of controls.

View Part I of the What Every IT Manager Should Know About Service Delivery and Support series here


Forgot Password

No problem! Submit your e-mail address below. We'll send you an e-mail containing your password.

Your password has been sent to: