The term IT Strategy is a commonly spoken of and the subject is often discussed in various seminars and talks. Being of so common a usage, it is assumed that all CIOs know about it and that it is practiced in most organizations.
In my interactions with CIOs in the last few years, I found that ‘strategic planning for IT’ is a practice which is a much less prevalent than what it should be. CIOs apparently have well-run programs in their companies; but on further enquiry, it transpires that many of them do not have their plans laid down on paper and nor do they have those shared with their managements.
If a plan is not clearly spelt out, it will remain unauthentic and not understood by others. In fact, people may even suspect whether such a plan exists. It is therefore important for any strategic plan to be laid down and articulated so that main stakeholders understand and are able to contribute to its fine tuning and its subsequent implementation.
IT plan Vs. IT strategy
Though IT strategy is a very familiar term it is still not understood clearly by many. Many tend to confuse it with the IT plan and hence claim to be on track. There is no disputing the fact that they have good IT plans and some may be running their programs efficiently, but they still do not carry the strategic element in it. In fact, many of the IT plans are really budgeting exercises for the year which list out the investments / expenses and the projects planned. CIOs therefore live from year to year and plan their activities based on user demand and technology additions / upgrades that they chalk out. They lack a discernible direction.
Let me define the subject in simple terms. IT strategy is an IT plan which has a definite direction and purpose. What differentiates an IT strategy from an IT plan is the purpose it serves. IT strategy is not a standalone plan but one which is in sync with the organization’s plans. Therefore the first step for the CIO is to understand the business the company is in, the market that it operates in, the competitors, business challenges, company’s inherent strengths, strategic direction, business priorities, and targets set. Once he gets that straight, he can make plans for IT to address these business issues with the same set of priorities. Obviously, IT strategy will require inputs from business and the final plan drawn up has to be vetted out by various wings of the organization.
Is there a methodology?
Yes, there are many. Management and IT consultants do help organizations and have developed their own sets of methods and practices. However, the CIO himself can adhere to simple principles of needs-discovery if he has the required capability. He has to hold discussions with the CEO, business heads, and other stakeholders besides visiting various company locations, the markets and even meeting business partners to understand the business imperatives and possible solutions. Once having compiled his findings, he could discuss it with technology-partners and seek solutions. He has to be receptive and be in a learning mode.
In case the CIO feels he does not have the requisite skills, he should muster courage to admit his inability to carry out the exercise himself. He should in such cases seek external assistance for help in making a comprehensive plan. It is better to have a good plan even though with external help rather than dishing out a poor plan claiming solo effort.
What holds him back?
Some CIOs fight shy of asking about strategy, feeling that they may get exposed for ignorance. They are sometimes at crossroads not knowing whether to seek consulting help (a lingering fear that they may get an adverse reaction of management) or do it in-house so that they could impress the management and claim saving money for the organization. Unfortunately, none of these tricks work in the long run, it is best to deal with these matters head-on and take hard decisions for the good of the organization.
Last weekend I was invited to be a speaker at a seminar that was being held to discuss cloud computing. The seminar was organized by an Institute of Technology in the Delhi NCR Region and was termed ‘National Seminar on Cloud Computing’. This was a full day event and I was told that this was a part of their practice to hold two such seminars every year. I gladly accepted the invitation as this was towards enhancement of knowledge for educational purposes.
I was given a list of topics including platforms & applications, enabling technologies, cloud in business, cloud in public sector, tools for management, cloud security, governance issues, etc. Having been with the large corporations during my career, I chose to speak on ‘Enterprise Cloud Computing’. I reached the venue a little ahead of my session so that I could get a feel of what was being discussed and tweak my talk accordingly. The audience mainly consisted of students, lecturers and a few invitees whereas the speakers were experts from various streams and mainly from vendor companies, representatives from specialist firms, and consultants.
In the preceding session, speakers presented their thoughts and ideas spanning a variety of areas including development tools, quality testing, performance management tools, security concerns and methods for their mitigation, etc. All speakers invited questions from the audience at the end of their speech but participants only nodded their heads in agreement but asked no questions.
Just before our session the organizers came up with a brilliant suggestion of changing our session into a panel discussion instead. Discussing this over lunch, the four speakers of this session felt that without adequate preparation and without a moderator, it would be difficult to last that long given the fact that the audience was rather passive in participation. So we reverted to our original plan of presentations with some time earmarked for questions and answers.
I took care to present the subject in an easy manner emphasizing on basics and leaving out a few details which I thought was were a little more advanced for the delegates. Other speakers too played the same card to the best of their abilities. There were but two questions and both from the teaching staff while students sat back dutifully till the end of the seminar.
Post session blues
When walking back from the hall, one of the professors enquired as to why this was termed ‘cloud computing’ and not ‘utility computing’ and another professor wanted to know if this was really working in the enterprises. Tired after the seminar, I preferred to wear a smile and give diplomatic answers. A student, sneaking in from behind and looking worried, spoke in a low voice and asked if ‘cloud’ was really safe. Before I could ask him further he said that he heard that the UID scheme in India is not taking off just because it was put on the cloud. I had to stop then to allay the fears of the young man explaining that what he had heard was incorrect and that UID was in a safe territory. I then turned around to another bunch of boys and asked them if the seminar was useful and one student admitted honestly that he understood nothing.
Key take-away from the seminar
There were quite a few things I learned from the seminar which makes me feel that the industry is in troubled times. Let me list them here:
1. ‘Cloud’ is a captivating theme which no institution can do without. A feeling that they will be termed outdated if they do not speak of cloud, is a compelling proposition. I wonder why institutions conduct such seminars; perhaps they do so because they have to as per their standard practice.
2. There is absence of planning and sessions are chosen without adequate thought.
3. The more they emphasize about the subject, the more they confuse the audience, especially the vulnerable young students.
4. It is perhaps time to downplay ‘cloud’ for a while and let the subject cool its heels for sometime — till this madness settles down a bit. Restarting later may inject a little more sense to the discussions and people will absorb the subject better.
5. People seem to have different understanding what a cloud is. I am reminded of the story ‘six blind men and the elephant’.
The cloud has been on the horizon for quite a while now and shows signs of moving overhead. The scene looks threatening and intoxicating and an overdose of it has caused a hangover from which I am recovering from.
Managing technology is an easy task for the CIOs – they know once they hit the right notes, technology behaves well. Managing users, however, is not as simple an affair. I am sure CIOs try all tricks in the book to win on this front but I am not sure how often they win. However, to ensure that systems work, one has to win over the users by using whatever means that are appropriate.
We are told that users are our customers and hence they are kings. More prophesies follow; we are made aware that users are the reason why we exist in our positions. We are advised of users being the very people who pass on feedback to management and hence it is in the fitness of things to keep them in good humor. It is needless to mention that keeping them happy ensures their use of your system else you may rue the consequences of failure.
A tough call, isn’t it? So we pull our hairs in disgust not knowing how to keep them happy. Some quip that it is easier to please their wives than dabbling with unrelenting users. But sweet advice does pour in and someone whispers in our ears saying ‘use diplomacy to tackle the users’. When enquired what it means comes the explanation: Diplomacy is an art of telling people to go to hell in such a way that they tend to ask you for directions..!! Clear?’
So let us put down a few ways of using diplomacy to manage users:
- Get friendly
Why not wish him a good morning or make sure to greet him on his birthday. Pick up a conversation once in a while and show him that you value him as a friend. That will break the ice and may perhaps run down barriers that may exist.
- Show empathy
Users have their woes and nothing could be better than sympathizing with his situation and wear a sad expression to show that you understand his plight. Users often need a shoulder to cry on, so why not offer this service. You can always extend help and ask them promising to do your best. You may be able to help or perhaps not but no harm in trying. Unless you make it obvious, users fall prey to these tactics and I don’t think it is wrong to win him over by this method.
- Sound positive
Users don’t like to hear a ‘no’. You may say it is better to be straightforward instead of fooling around, but isn’t that foolhardy? How can you turn down a customer who has come looking for help? There are always workarounds. Why not sound positive and genuinely look for solutions and if not, you always have the choice of informing him of the difficulty in tackling his problem. I am sure he would understand and appreciate efforts you made.
- Shower praise
We often hold back our praise or acknowledgement of users with a feel that this may spoil them. On the contrary I would think it important to be magnanimous and say a word or two appreciating his views, approach, his work or his achievements. Why not give him some importance and make him feel bigger. Even when suggesting a solution or improvement in work processes, be suggestive and put words in his mouth. He will then own the process and make it work. May be you can take them out for an official lunch or dinner and hand them a memento to acknowledge their contribution. Speak kindly of them and even praise them in front of the management.
- Don’t react
All is not hunky dory. Users are sometimes very smart or fierce. They are at times in an attack mode and your charm doesn’t work. A normal tendency would be react and not take things lying down, but why create complications for ourselves? Better smile even if he is abusive but let him shed all the heat. After expending all energy he may cool down a bit and that could be the right time to make your pitch.
So friends, it is best to kill the user with kindness rather than picking up a battle in which no one wins. It is said a smile disarms the opponent, so why not try out this formula. Try entrapment with your diplomacy.
Building a dream team is a desire of all but it requires considerable doing. We sometimes have to build teams right from scratch and sometimes we either rebuild or restructure our teams to make them suitable for the state we aspire to get into. Building a new team is a lot easier than molding the current one for the new order.
I have been in several such situations in the past. Except for one occasion, where I had to put up a new team, in most cases, I had inherited a team that I had to work with. Assessing the worth of each member, re-skilling the team, re-allocating work, mentoring it, and in some rare cases, axing them were some of the challenges I had to face. The team to be created often depended on the culture of the organization and the plans that I made. I also required help from the HR department and the CEO.
Building a team takes time and we need to exercise patience. We may have to make mid-course corrections when things do not turn out the way we want and make amends when the individuals on whom we place our bets do not deliver. Great individuals form great teams but they need to be cohesive and realize that their victory lies in their collective success. Some element of mentoring and addressing matters of emotional stability becomes important. Let us look at the factors for team building:
- Shared mission, objective, standards, etc.
The first task, in my opinion, is to bring the entire team to a common platform — a position wherefrom each person looks at the same objectives and goals and starts working in the same direction. People have to be told that the progress can be only with collaborative effort.
- Re-skilling people
The skill-sets of some staff members may not be suitable in their current form for the new tasks that we plan. These team members necessarily have to be re-skilled and made capable. For instance, I had once to contend with a bunch of old staffers who had rudimentary skills in SQL programming and therefore I had to undertake a special in-house training course to make them aware of the relational structure, rules of normalizations, and consequences of wrong select statements. They shaped up better and hence could be utilized in software development projects.
- Assigning the right roles to the right people
Right people in the wrong roles, and vice-versa, is an old refrain. Restructuring of the team is often a good move by which we identify the skills people possess and assign them the roles that suit their temperament. On two occasions, I picked up staff working on development projects and shifted them to infrastructure monitoring and the results were amazing! These boys grew up in confidence and went on to become managers.
All available knowledge and skills are not always available within the organization and therefore induction of fresh talent becomes necessary. It has to be a careful choice and is important to pick up the right person who would work together with the team to achieve goals. In one case, I remember, the CEO asked me to meet a few of my peers in the organization before giving me the appointment letter. He told me that he wanted both, me and the others to feel comfortable.
- Training and development
This is often ignored or not given enough attention. With the ever-changing world around us, especially the world of technology and applications, it is better that people are suitably updated and upgraded to be able to bring new technologies into practice. Regular training sessions are as important as any other measure.
- Removing people
This is an unpleasant task but necessary at times. Though every effort should be made to reform a person, wrong people always create undesirable influences and are therefore detrimental to team working. It is important in such cases to either relocate them to some other function or ask them to seek opportunity elsewhere.
In summary, it takes considerable effort to build a good team and also takes us that much time to do so. But once the team assumes a proper shape, the work atmosphere turns exhilarating. People enjoy working together and the productivity jumps several folds. It is a utopian situation and is a fun when it works.
A few years into my role as a CIO, I realized that having the right people in the team is perhaps the single most important factor to be successful. In the initial period, I had struggled with my team which consisted of a few old timers, some good professionals, and youngsters. Some were effective and enthusiastic and others were placid and unambitious. Frankly, some did not fit into the group at all and caused considerable friction in the team. In such cases, it was natural for me to pick up the good ones in the team and entrust them with all the critical tasks. This was rather unfair as the sincere amongst them got overburdened while others were cornered and denied opportunity.
In the next organization I was fortunate to have a small but a good team and I added a few more based on our projected plans. As we slowly built up systems, people got involved and worked together to achieve success. Having tasted success, they wanted to do more and joined hands to scale greater heights. I could then sense the synergy in the group and general positivity which was wonderful.
It is said that there is no better way to learn than by experience. Experience showed me the magic of team dynamics and the importance of having the right people together. It is pertinent to quote Jim Collins from his book “Good to Great’. He says: “First get the right people on the bus (and the wrong people off the bus) and then figure out where to drive it.” He lays emphasis on the having the right people with you even before you begin your journey. Wrong people in the group may destroy teamwork, damage morale, and spread inefficiency and discontent.
Thumbs up to team work
Now let us look at the advantage that comes with having the right people in your team.
(a) Great teamwork: People feel comfortable working with each other and create a supportive environment. There is synergy in the group and the output often exceeds the targets set. You have self-managed and self-motivated people who need no supervision.
(b) High morale: The positive work environment ups the morale of the team and people feel excited and enthusiasm is palpable. People are self-driven and do not look for incentives.
(c) Quality of work and delivery: People put their hearts into the work and the result is high quality of work and timely execution. Committed individuals and the team practice self-supervision and ensure quality delivery.
(d) Better image of the function: Such enthusiasm is infectious and slowly rubs off on people they come in contact with. People from other functions love to engage with them and the image of the IT department is thus enhanced.
(e) Better connect with the management: When projects are rolled out successfully and the user departments express satisfaction, the message gets carried on to the management. I was in one such situation and the result was that all the further proposals by me got approved quickly and without much questioning (and that made other people envious!?)
(f) Delivery on time: We know most IT projects face hurdles and get delayed. However when right people work in a team, each person pulls his weight and delivers projects on time as the honor of the team is at stake.
(g) Personal bonding: People learn to respect one another and matters like seniority and hierarchy recede to the background. Informal get-togethers and social bonding are not uncommon.
How to build a team
Building the right team is a challenge and to be honest I have been able to build up such a team in only four of the seven organizations I have worked with. Getting the right people on the bus and offloading the wrong ones is easier said than done. Let me deal with this subject in my next article.
I have come across quite a few IT professionals and CIOs who desired change of jobs just because they had reached a level of stagnation in their current organization. When quizzed further they said they had already done whatever there was to do and therefore they have now to move on to do something bigger.
I was often amused and pretended sympathizing with them asking a few innocent questions to let them open up and tell me something more about it. What they said revealed quite a lot about their psyche and their level of understanding of the role they had taken up. These people were either CIOs of medium-sized organizations or IT managers from some larger organizations and they met me for a position in my company and in other cases came to seek my advice on their career paths.
What I found was that, in many cases, the perception of candidates was they had reached the limit of what could be done and there was nothing further that IT could do. Strange as it seemed, these candidates, however, seemed convinced of the situation. Let me narrate an instance of my encounter with a candidate who approached me for a job as manager. After the initial exchange of information about his current role and the my requirement, the conversation proceeded thus:
Me: Good to know that you successfully implemented ERP in your organization. Why then would you like to leave this position?
Candidate: Sir, once ERP is implemented there is not much else to do. Plus I have already given reports that users wanted.
Me: OK. Are users making use of the reports and have they derived benefit by reducing inventory, outstanding etc.?
Candidate: They take out reports regularly and I would expect them to put that to use.
Me: Did you explore the possibility of making process improvement in various areas and of reducing the turnaround time of different processes?
Candidate: That is a business call sir. I don’t want to interfere in their area.
Me: May be BI can help in analyzing business performance.
Candidate: I know but other managers don’t listen. Plus, it is difficult to train them.
Me: What about connecting other stakeholders like suppliers and dealers over Internet?
Candidate: That will take a long time.
You may have guessed it right, I rejected this candidate.
Those who came out of this syndrome
A young CIO once approached me requesting me to mentor him on his career path. Besides seeking a direction for his career, his immediate requirement was to change his present job for something better. I tried to understand his current role and factors that limited his progress. His answers were somewhat similar to what is mentioned above, but in this case he was searching for answers.
I talked to him about various possibilities including process re-engineering, BI, content/ document management, web-based processes merging into ERP, introducing mobility, etc. He then left with a few ideas in mind and worked in the same organization for the next two years bringing about changes and getting management’s attention.
He met me again and said he wants a change now, not because he was stagnating but because the organization had limited growth plans and therefore he wanted to use his new-found learning and confidence in another organization that is looking for improvement.
I thought that was an amazing turnaround displayed by this young man. He simply demonstrated that he could grab initiative and act when others slept. Problems are only in the mind and once you act things start things start falling in place. There is no point in running away from any situation as you may encounter the same problem in the next outing. Unless we use our faculties to improve the situation around us, we may fall short of our self-esteem.
Networks are the sensory nerves of the IT set up of an organization and extremely critical for the functioning of information systems. They connect the users to the information database and carry data and information to the users and let him operate on data and applications. Should the network snap, the entire organization’s work comes to a standstill. Yet the network is sometimes not given as much attention as it should be. There is a tendency to handle problems as and when they occur without getting into the root cause or taking steps to augment the network to take care of increased traffic or to remodel the network to ward off problems that occur frequently.
When reviewing IT performance of a few organizations I found networks either failing or delivering poor performance. User complaints were usually attended to with the IT in-charge either blaming the components, vendor or the budget sanctioned but doing nothing to work out a long term solution to the problem. In many a cases I found the network to be one which was designed several years ago but continuously burdened with additional users and applications without the network being adequately reviewed or upgraded. Some organizations had no network diagrams while some had no one specifically assigned to take care of the network.
Some good practices
I am discussing Local Area Networks (LAN) here as that forms the backbone of full network. People do connect from outside either from their other offices or through internet but that is through the WAN network. To make the LAN reliable it is necessary to follow some good practices which I explain below:
- Network planning and design: Laying of networks is not a case of ad-hoc cabling but requires careful planning and designing. The network should cater to the present and future requirement of business. Network planning therefore should take into account the business plan and growth projections, network capacity planning, definition of the number of LANs / VLANs and following structured cabling process.
- Network layout: The next step is a detailed design of the network identifying different types of physical connects for example places that need to be wired and those to be connected through wireless or radio. Documentation is essential in the form of a network diagram to show the placement of switches, routers etc. and types of connects for example cables Cat-6, Fiber, wireless etc.
- Laying cables: Once the network topology is drawn up, it becomes essential to make it work on the ground. It is important to choose routes through which cables would run and decide whether they would run either above or below ground or on walls and ceilings. In factory environment, it is essential to flag the route, use different color for network cables (to prevent accidental damage due to digging & construction), keep away from high tension cables and avoid mix up between network & electrical cables. For wireless networks placement of routers needs to be properly fixed up.
- Use network monitoring tools: The story doesn’t end with laying of the network; its good performance is a critical need. Physical or manual checking and surveillance are not an easy task and therefore it is necessary to install proper network management tools which can indicate traffic volumes on various segments of the network, measure performance, help diagnose faults and facilitate resolution. It is essential to move towards centralized monitoring and control.
- Concern for security: The local network need to be protected from unauthorized access both from within and outside the premises. Network sign-in should be through registered user-id and passwords. Extra care needs to be taken for Wi-Fi networks.
- Connect to the outside: All external connects should pass through VPNs, firewalls/ intrusion detection tools, etc. With increase threats, a 24/7 check by in-house staff becomes impossible and therefore companies prefer to outsource network security monitoring.
- Review of network once every few years: Requirements of organizations are never static and steady growth puts pressure on the network. Newer applications ride the network, more elements are added and the topology also undergoes a change over a period of time. Networks sometimes become unwieldy and therefore need a re-look and redesign where necessary. Components on the network also require replacement or upgrade.
It pays to keep the network healthy, live and kicking. It can be done only through adequate care and nurturing. A smooth flow of data and information brings smiles on the users’ faces.
The job of a CIO is not an easy one. While on one hand he is expected to be proactive in addressing business challenges with technology, on the other, he is supposed to keep the lights on, ensuring that the IT infrastructure is available at all times. He is on his toes trying to meet deadlines on projects, is drawn in to discussions, arguments and brawls with users, is involved managing various vendors, and is busy ensuring that all elements of the IT infrastructure work in an uninterrupted fashion. He sometimes looks dazed at the end of the day.
All of this saps his energy. If he is resigned to his fate and carries on with complaints, he faces the danger of stagnation. If he wants to grow and rise up in his profession, he will have to break free and find a way out of this daily rigmarole. This is however easier said than done.
1. Take a break
He is to come out of this monotony, take himself away from the clutter and give some time to himself — time to be quiet, to think and relax, without the constant interference of TV, telephone, and the Internet. He will find that he comes back clear-headed and refreshed, and his work time will be more efficient and productive. He can take off and go for an adventure which brings back joy and the challenge in him.
He can take the entire staff on a development break — let us say a team building exercise which has adventure, role play and pep talk by motivators. Being together but away from the workplace, increases bonding amongst the team members and infuses new ideas into the group.
It is the responsibility of each individual to effect the change necessary to reinvent work so that it has personal relevance. Companies want that employees take responsibility for their own careers. To accomplish successful career transitions within an existing organization or a new organization requires personal motivation. Successful transition can be achieved by a willingness to learn and by possessing a positive attitude. He has to work on himself to add new skills and to expand his horizon of thought and action. To do that he can work on various ways to renew himself:
A good way to attain knowledge is to read chosen books on management, self-development or on technology. He has to ride over excuses of time availability or of not being in mood. I have often set aside one hour before dinner for reading and then it turns into a habit which lets me finish the book soon.
4. Attending development programs / workshops
I have sometimes seen CIOs shying away from developmental programs arranged by their HR departments. Sessions on leadership, negotiation skills, motivation, or managerial skills can often act as change agents and instill renewed enthusiasm into the individual.
5. Requisition for professional short term courses
Many event management firms and management institutions hold short- or medium-term executive development programs. These may be on management subjects, technology, or personnel development but are very useful. Personally, I have benefited from them and was fortunate to get opportunity to apply the learning in my workplace.
6. Attend seminars
Various technology seminars held from time to time present an opportunity to keep you abreast of the new developments and the changing landscape.
7. Join courses like MBA, MS, etc.
There’s nothing like adding new capability. Of late, I have seen many from the lower- or the middle-management levels taking a shot at new degrees either on full-time or part-time bases. They come out stronger and are ready to take a leap.
Blessed are those who keep reinventing themselves and are ready to grace new pastures. No one knows one’s limits and therefore it makes sense to test our worth and stretch ourselves to the extent that we can.
It was during my school days that I first learnt the importance of good writing as a means of communication. Our English teacher was once distributing answer-sheets of our periodic exams in the class. One of the questions in the paper was of essay-writing. The teacher singled out my paper to explain to the class how an essay needs to be written. I was overwhelmed as I always thought I was poor in English and often used to envy some of my classmates who had rich vocabulary to boast of. The teacher simply said that the key was not about using a flowery language but of simple expression conveying the story to the reader in a way he can understand. I could never forget that advise and that stayed with me ever since.
Experience of the professional world
After a few years of working with two companies I moved into a management consulting firm. I was on my first major assignment and had to submit a proposal to the client. I carried out the fact-finding with great enthusiasm and then compiled the data collected to write out my proposal. The proposal, painstakingly written, was full of expression and analysis and I forwarded to our Director for his approval. The Director later called me over and told me in a polite way that though the proposal was good, he had difficulty comprehending it since he looked from the client’s perspective. He said that the proposal did carry details of the task to be done, the process that I would adopt, and the deliverables, but did not speak of the need for such a work, the purpose to be served, and benefit that would accrue to the organization. It was a knuckle on my head — in short, he told me that the proposal didn’t make sense! Feeling hurt, I sat with my senior colleague to complete the task.
A similar experience with another organization a few years later brought more sense into me. New to the organization, I set out to prepare a comprehensive IT plan for submitting to the management. There was nothing wrong with the effort that I put in or about the technology solutions I envisaged. My final report carried details of system requirements for each function, software to be developed, hardware to be procured and a schedule for implementation. Most of my colleagues agreed with my assessment but our Managing Director did not. He said he could see no connect with the organization’s plans and said that the report did not indicate the purpose it is going to serve. Another knock and I nearly swooned.
I had to understand the art of good writing and went about reading, discussing, and applying what I learnt. I wrote the following guidelines for myself for writing out any report:
- Objective: Always state the objective or the main purpose of the report.
- Context: Explain the background or build up the context so that the reader is able to make out the situation that is being addressed.
- Explain approach: It is important to explain your choice of actions and various options considered for resolution. Your arriving at a conclusion otherwise would not convince the recipient of the report.
- Specify the solution: It is important to be specific and unambiguous on your decision or the final recommendation. What you may do is to suggest and leave the final decision to the person to whom it is forwarded.
- Enumerate advantages: It is good to mention about the likely gains, advantage that may accrue or savings possible and wherever possible quantify them.
- Conclusion: End up stating clearly the action that you expect. It could be seeking approval, wanting to inform, putting the matter for debate or justifying your stand but it is important not to leave the report open ended.
Did it work?
Yes, it did. In subsequent years, I was lucky to have most of recommendations accepted without too much of a debate or with very few objections. In fact, many of my other colleagues in other functions wondered what steps I had employed “to please my bosses”. I was happy to have learnt something which I could use.
Managing the complete IT infrastructure of any organization is not easy. Many a time we receive frantic calls from users crying hoarse that they are unable to go through their transactional process, are unable to take out reports or that they find it difficult to send mails or to access information. This is a complex issue that needs tackling; the CIO goes about diagnosing the fault in order to isolate the problem and set it right.
It sometimes is a nightmare. The CIO is not sure whether the issue is on the client, the network or somewhere in the back-end infrastructure. He brings to bear his problem solving acumen and tries to go through the problem methodically trying to eliminate various issues so that he can zero in on the root cause. When he has a large and multi-layered IT infrastructure he has to drill down to each layer trying to discover the problem. This often takes too long to diagnose and resolve incidents. As users call him up frantically, he loses his peace and composure. When introducing new applications he has no means to ensure that the application performance will be as good as the developers promised and spends weeks after the roll-out to resolve issues.
Use of specific tools
It is not as if the CIO is devoid of resources. He would have bought performance measurement tools for database, applications or the network and use them to diagnose faults. When in problem he uses these tools to find out faults if any in each of these areas in order to identify and correct them. This takes time since he can’t visualize the problem in a holistic manner but has to wait to find out whether each of the areas are good or have an issue which needs tackling.
Applications have traditionally been delivered from data centers. Therefore traditional performance management has focused on data center infrastructure but delivery of today’s application deals with a complex data center architecture (including servers, storage, virtualization platforms, security layers etc.), multi-tier application architecture and an expanding mix of cloud services, third party services, mobile carriers, browsers etc. The CIO therefore needs a host of tools to manage and administer the complete infrastructure. He has tackle the issue on two fronts – to investigate whether the health of the infrastructure is alright or if not, where is the problem; and secondly, to run, diagnose, and fix problems vis-à-vis the application package if that is where the fault lies.
A holistic solution
It was therefore necessary to have a set of tools which could help IT administrators to proactively scan the environment to of any potential bottlenecks and to diagnose and isolate faults in the entire chain so that they can be attended speedily. So a host of vendors, including Compuware, Computer Associates, HP, Quest, and others, came out and have been offering solutions to make this possible.
Most of these tools offer an end-to-end monitoring and management of application performance or in other words give a global view of application performance. They traverse the entire IT infrastructure to identify any blockage or bottleneck and also do a component deep dive monitoring to bring out specific problem in the application context. They incorporate a role-based dashboard to quickly assess health of applications. Further, analytics provide insight into faults so that corrective actions can be put in place. It is possible to define SLAs and track service level compliance over time. They follow industry-defined standards and therefore if you already have any application specific tool, it is possible to integrate it with the APM suite.
Should CIOs consider APM tools?
Choosing any solution has to be in the context of problems being encountered. IT setups in small and medium-sized businesses are not complex enough to warrant an elaborate solution. However, larger organizations with complex work environment and those sporting multi-layered IT infrastructure may well consider better methods to deal with application performance issues. Businesses are no longer tolerant of IT bottlenecks and it enjoins upon us to provide an uninterrupted work environment. APM suites therefore make a lot of sense.